American Politics 3

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American Politics 3
2012-05-10 04:45:25
Political Participation Voting Parties Campaigns Elections Groups Interests Civil Liberties

EXAM 3 and 4
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  1. Political Participation
    political activities whose purpose is to influence government

    voting, writing letters, signing petitions, donating to causes, contacting elected officials, joining political organizations
  2. Lobbying
    a strategy by which organized interests seek to influence the passage of legislation by exerting direct pressure on members of the legislature
  3. Public Relations
    an attempt, usually through the use of paid consultants, to establish a favorable relationship with the public and influence its political opinions
  4. Test Cases
    carefully selected cases intended to get a law either favorably interpreted or overturned
  5. Civil Disobedience
    Intentionaly breaking a law in order to bring it into the court system so it can be overturned
  6. Litigation
    a lawsuit or legal proceeding; as a form of political participation, an attempt to change the law through the judicial system
  7. Protest
    participation that involves assembling crowds to confront a government or other official organization

    protected by 1st Amendment (if peaceful)
  8. 24h Amendment
    prevents use of poll taxes to restrict suffrage
  9. 26th Amendment
    1971: lowered voting age to 18
  10. 19th Amendment
    1920: Grants suffrage to Women
  11. 15th Amendment
    1 of 3 Civil War Amendments

    1870: expansion of franchise for Race
  12. Expansion of the Franchise
    15th, 19th, 24th, 26th Amendments for suffrage
  13. Suffrage (Franchise)
    the right to vote
  14. Poll Tax
    a state-imposed tax on voters as a prerequisite for registration. Rendered unconstitutional in 1966
  15. Turnout
    the percentage of eligible individuals who actually vote
  16. Socioeconomic Status
    status in society based on level of education, income and occupational prestige
  17. Civic Engagement
    a sense of concern among members of the political community about public, social, and political life, expressed through participation in social and political organizations
  18. Mobilization
    the process by which large numbers of people are organized for a political activity
  19. Political Parties
    organized groups that attempt to influence the government by electing their members to important government offices
  20. Two-Party System
    a political system in which only two parties have a realistic opportunity to compete effectively for control
  21. Electoral Realignment
    the point in history when a new party supplants the ruling party, becoming in turn the dominant political force.

    In the USA, has tended to occur every 30 years
  22. Divided Government
    the condition in American government wherein the presidency is controlled by one party while the opposing party controls one or both houses of Congress
  23. Third Parties
    parties that organize to compete against the two major American political parties
  24. Single-Member District
    an electorate that is allowed to select only one representative from each district; the normal method of representation in the USA
  25. Multiple-Member District
    an electorate that selects all candidates at large from the whole district; each voter is given the number of votes equivalent to the number of seats to be filled
  26. Plurality System
    a type of electoral system in which, to win a seat in the parliament or other representative body, a candidate need only receive the most votes in the election, not necessarily a majority of the votes cast
  27. Proportional Representation
    a multiple-member district system that allows each political party representation in proportion to its percentage of the total vote
  28. Party Organization
    the formal structure of a political party, including its leadership, election committees, active members, and paid staff
  29. National Convention
    a national party political institution that nominates the party's presidential and vice presidential candidates, establishes party rules, and writes and ratifies the party's platform
  30. Platform
    a party document, written at a national convention, that contains party philosophy, principles, and positions on issues
  31. 527 Committees
    nonprofit independent groups that receive and dispurse funds to influence the nomination, election, or defeat of candidates
  32. Machines
    well-organized strong party organizations in late 19th and early 20th century American cities. Lead by "bosses" who controlled party nominations and patronage
  33. Patronage
    resources available to higher officials, usually opportunities to make partisan appointments to offices and to confer grants, licenses, or special favors to supporters
  34. Soft Money
    money contributed directly to political parties and other organizations for political activities that is not regulated by federal campaign spending laws
  35. Party Identification
    an individual voter's psychological ties to one party or another
  36. Party Activists
    partisans who contribute time, energy, and effort to support their party and its candidates
  37. Nomination
    the process by which political parties select their candidates for election to public office
  38. Policy Entrepreneur
    an individual who identifies a problem as a political issue and brings a policy proposal into the political agenda
  39. Midterm Elections
    congressional elections that do not coincide with a presidential election; also called "off-year elections"
  40. Primary Elections
    elections held to select a party's candidate for the general election
  41. Closed Primary
    a primary election in which voters can participate in the nomination of candidates, but only of the party in which they are enrolled for a period of time prior to primary day
  42. Open Primary
    a primary election in which the voter can wait until the day of the primary to choose which party to enroll in to select candidates for the general election
  43. Referendum
    the practice of referring a measure proposed or passed by a legislature to the vote of the electorate for approval or rejection
  44. Recall
    procedure to allow voters an opportunity to remove state officials from office before their terms expire
  45. Majority System
    a type of electoral system in which, to win a seat in the parliament or other representative body, a candidate must receive a majority of all the votes cast in the relevant district
  46. Benign-Gerrymandering
    attempts to draw district boundaries so as to create districts made up primarily of disadvantaged or underrepresented minorities
  47. Majority-Minority District
    a gerrymandered voting district that improves the chances of minority candidates by making selected minority groups the majority within the district
  48. Coattail Effect
    the result of voters casting their ballot for president or governor and "automatically" voting for the remainder of the party's ticket
  49. Campaign
    an effort by political candidates and their supporters to win the backing of donors, political activists, and voters in their quest for political office
  50. Incumbent
    a candidate running for reelection to a position that they already hold
  51. Open Caucus
    a presidential nominating caucus open to anyone who wishes to attend
  52. Closed Caucus
    a presidential nominating caucus open only to registered party members
  53. Winner-Take-All System
    system in which all of a state's presidential nominating delegates are awarded to the candidate who wins the most votes, while runners-up receive no delegates
  54. Delegates
    political activists selected to vote at a party's national convention
  55. Superdelegate
    a covention delegate position, in Democratic conventions, reserved for party officials
  56. Spot Advertisement
    a 15/30/60 second TV campaign commercial that permits a candidate's message to be delivered to a target audience
  57. Town Meeting
    a media format in which candidates meet with ordinary citizens. Allows candidates to deliver messages without the presence of journalists or commentators
  58. Prospective Voting
    voting based on the imagined future performance of a candidate
  59. Retrospective Voting
    voting based on the past performance of a candidate
  60. Political Action Committee (PAC)
    a private group that raises and distributes funds for use in election campaigns
  61. 501c(4) Committees
    nonprofit groups that also engage in issue advocacy; may spend up to half its revenue for political puposes
  62. Interest Group
    individuals who organize to influence the government's programs and policies
  63. Membership Association
    an organized group in which members actually play a substantial role, sitting on committees and engaging in group projects
  64. Staff Organization
    a type of membership group in which a professional staff conducts most of the group's activities
  65. Free Riders
    those who enjoy the benefits of collective goods but did not participate in acquiring them
  66. Informational Benefits
    special newsletters, periodicals, training programs, conferences, and other information provided to members of groups to entice others to join
  67. Material Benefits
    special goods, services, or money provided to members of groups to entice others to join
  68. Solidary Benefits
    selective benefits of group membership that emphasize friendship, networking, and consciousness raising
  69. Purposive Benefits
    selective benefits of group membership that emphasizes the purpose and accomplishments of the group
  70. New Politics Movement
    political movement that strengthened public interest groups

    movement was made up of professionals and intellectuals for whom the civil rights and antiwar movements were formative experiences.
  71. Public Interest Groups
    groups that claim they serve the general good rather than only their own particular interest
  72. Issue Network
    a loose network of elected leaders, public officials, activists, and interest groups drawn together by a specific policy issue
  73. Institutional Advertising
    advertising designed to create a positive image of an organization
  74. Grassroots Mobilization
    a lobbying campaign in which a group mobilizes its membership to contact government officials in support of the group's position
  75. Civil Liberties
    areas of personal freedom with which governments are constrained from interfering

    protection from improper government action

    a check on the majority in order to allow unpopular minorities to speak and act as they desire: protects the marketplace of ideas
  76. Procedural
    Rules regarding how the government must act
  77. the Bill of Rights
    1st 10 Amendments of the Constitution
  78. 2nd Amendment
    purpose was to establish a militia (police force) to maintain public order

    since the state wouldn't provide arms, citizens were expected to keep their own arms ready
  79. Incorporation
    the process of extending the Bill of Rights to the states
  80. Substantive
    limits on what the government can or cannot do
  81. Bill of Attainder
    a law that declares a person guilty of a crime without a trial
  82. ex post facto Law
    a law that declares an action to be illegal after it has been committed
  83. Selective Incorporation
    the process by which different protections in the Bill of Rights were incorporated into the 14th Amendment, thus guaranteeing citizens protection from state as well as national governments
  84. 4 Categories of Unprotected Speech
    Libel (written) and Slander (oral): must be untrue


    Fighting Words (Hate Speech)

    Commercial Speech
  85. Establishment Clause
    the 1st Amendment Clause that says that "Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion."

    means that a "wall of separation" exists between curch and state
  86. Lemon Test
    government action toward religion is permissible if it is secular in purpose, neither promotes nor inhibits the practice of religion, and does not lead to "excessive entanglement" with religion
  87. Free Exercise Clause
    the 1st Amendment clause that protects a citizen's right to believe and practice whatever religion they choose
  88. "Clear and Present Danger" Test
    test to determine whether speech is protected or unprotected, based on its capacity to prove hazardous to society
  89. Speech Plus
    speech accompanied by conduct such as sit-ins, picketing, and demonstrations
  90. Prior Restraint
    an effort by governmental agency to block the publication on material it deems libelious or harmful in some other way; Censorship.
  91. Libel
    a written saement made in "reckless disregard of the truth" that is considered damaging to a victim because it is "malicious, scandalous, and defamatory"
  92. Slander
    an oral statement, made in "reckless disregard of the truth" which is considered damaging to the victim because it is "malicious, scandalous, and defamatory"
  93. Fighting Words
    speech that directly incites damaging conduct
  94. Due Process of Law
    4th, 5th, 6th, and 8th Amendments are the essence

    the right of every citizen against arbitrary action by national of state governments
  95. Grand Jury
    determines whether sufficient evidence is available to justify a trial
  96. Double Jeopardy
    cannot be tried for the same crime
  97. 5th Amendment
    right to a grand jury

    double jeopardy

    protection against "taking" of private property "without just compensation"
  98. 4th Amendment
    protects citizens from unreasonable searches and seizures
  99. Exclusionary Rule
    the ability of courts to exclude evidence obtained in violation of the 4th Amendment
  100. Grand Jury
    jury that determines whether sufficient evidence is available to justify a trial; they do NOT rule on the accused's guilt or innocence
  101. Double Jeopardy
    the 5th Amendment right providing that a person cannot be tried twice for the same crime
  102. Miranda Rule
    persons under arrest must be informed prior to police interrogation of their rights to remain silent and to have the benefit of legal counsel
  103. Eminent Domain
    the right of government to take private property for public use
  104. Right to Privacy
    the right to be left alone, which has been interpreted by the Supreme Court to entail free access to birth control and abortions

    Not covered in tthe Constitution or the Bill of Rights
  105. Sound Bites
    short snipptes of information aimed at dramatizing a story rather than explaining its substantive meaning
  106. Equal Time Rule
    the requirement that that broadcasters provide candidates for the same political office equal opportunities to communicate their messagess to the public

    must sell time at the lowest rate

    if 45 days before election, candidates must acknowledge sponsorship of ad to get that rate
  107. Right of Rebuttal
    A Federal Communications Commission regulation giving individuals the right to have the opportunity to respond to personal attacks made on a radio or TV broadcast
  108. Fairness Doctrine
    a Federal Communications Commission requirement for broadcasters who air programs on controversial issues to provide time for opposing views - ceased enforcement 1985
  109. Agenda Setting
    the power of the media to bring public attention to particular issues and programs
  110. Framing
    the power of the media to influence how events and issues are interpreted
  111. Priming
    process of preparing the public to take a particular view of an event or political actor
  112. Broadcast News
    covers relatively few topics and often does so at a very superficial level

    likes stories that have images

    often reduces very complex topics to a series of sound bites
  113. Federal Communications Commission
    7 words that can never be used

    Over-the-air broadcast media: regulations prohibit obscenity, indecency, and profanity. Also assumes that children have access

    Cable TV and Satelite Radio: Explicit sexual content and graphic language not prohibited
  114. Print Media
    shrinking in readership, but form the backbone of the American media

    Have the capacity to cover multiple stories

    Can cover at very high levels of detail
  115. Internet
    both traditional broadcast and print media have a presence

    opens space for new voices and instant news

    allows for low-cost and sometimes more interactive news sources
  116. +/- Side of Nationalizing New
    Positive: Americans share a common body of knowledge

    Negative: Tends to drown out minority/fringe opinions
  117. Bias in Reporting
    Reporters: tend to lean Liberal

    Owners: tend to lean Conservative
  118. Discrimination
    use of any unreasonable and unjust criterion of exclusion
  119. Civil Rights
    obligation imposed on government to take positive action to protect citizens from any illegal action of government agencies as well as of other private citizens
  120. Equal Protection Clause
    provision of the 14th Amendment: has been the basis for the civil rights of women minority groups - guarantees equal protection of the laws
  121. 13th Amendment
    1 of 3 Civil War Amendments: abolished slavery
  122. 14th Amendment
    1 of 3 Civil War Amendments: guaranteed equal protection and due process
  123. Jim Crow laws
    laws enacted by southern states following Reconstruction that discriminated against African Americans
  124. "Seperate but Equal" Rule
    doctrine that public accomodations could be segregated by race but still be equal

    Plessy v. Ferguson (1896)
  125. Brown v. Board of Education
    the 1954 Supreme Court decision that struck down the "seperate but equal" docterine as fundamentally unequal. This case eliminated state power to use race as a criterion of discrimintation in law and provided the national government with the power to inervene by exercising strict regulatory policies against discriminatory actions.
  126. Strict Scrutiny
    test used by the Supreme Court in racial discrimination cases and other cases invloving civil liberties and civil rights, which places the burdon of proof on the government rather than on the challengers to show that the law in qustion is constitutional
  127. de jure
    legally enforced practices

    "by law"
  128. de facto
    practices that occur even when there is no legal enforcement

    "by fact"
  129. Gerrymandering
    apportionment of voters in districts in such a way as to give unfair advantage to one racial/ethnic group or political party
  130. Redlining
    a practice in which banks refuse to make loans to people living in certain geographic locations
  131. Intermediate Scrutiny
    test used by the Supreme Court in gender discrimination cases, which places the burden of proof partially on the government and partially on the challengers to show that the law in question is unconstitutional
  132. Affirmative Action
    government policies or programs that seek to redress past injustices against specified groups by making spacial efforts to provide members of these groups with access to educational and employment opportunities
  133. Public Policy
    a law, rule, statute, or edict that expresses the government's goals and provides for rewards and punishments to promote their attainment.
  134. Nonpartisan
    a local or judicial election in which party affiliation is not listed on the ballot
  135. Primary Election
    State parties choose their prefernece for candidates who will run in the general elections

    states can also hol caucuses, in which members meet and vote
  136. General Elections
    determine who gets to hold office

    typically draws the most voters
  137. State Control
    the Constitution gives states control over elections within their borders

    Localities typically administer elections

    elections are overseen by state regulators
  138. Initiative
    allows citizens to propose and enact constitutional amendments and legislation, independent of legislature
  139. Popular Vote
    total number of votes nation-wide
  140. When no candidate gets a majority of the electoral vote
    House chooses the President (each state delegation gets 1 vote)

    Senate chooses the vice president (each senator gets 1 vote)

    A candidate can win the popular vote and NOT the electoral vote.
  141. Pluralism
    a theory that citizens with varied interests and opinions connect to the government though interest groups that compete in the public sphere

    desired result: compromise and moderation
  142. Key features of Interest Groups



  143. Interest groups can turn to litigation when they lack access and influence or when they are dissatisfied with the government and its programs . . .
    1. bringing suit directly on the behalf of the group

    2. by financing suits brought by individuals

    3. by filing a companion brief as an "amicus curiae" in an existing case
  144. Interest Groups have grown in America
    due to ...

    Expansion of government and new politics of interest groups
  145. Obama Administration
    bans ex-officials from being hired for one year
  146. Keeping Lobbying Ethical
    Obama Administration

    all lobbyists must register as such

    businesses and trade associations cannot write off lobbying expenses

    no gifts over $50 in value
  147. Nevada Interest Groups
    Gaming industry

    • Unions
    • - NV State Education Association
    • - Culinary
  148. NV legislature is Part-Time
    heavily dependent in lobbyists
  149. Judicial Review
    power of courts to declare actions of legislative and executive branches invalid or unconstitutional
  150. 6th Amendment
    Right to representation by counsel

    speedy and public trial

    an impartial jury

    Right to obtain a witness in their favor

    Right to appeal
  151. 8th Amendment
    Prohibits "cruel and unusual" punishment
  152. Abortion
    Roe v. Wade
  153. Homosexuality
    Lawrence and Garner v. Texas (2003)
  154. NAACP
    raised funds to support legal challenges to Jim Crowe Laws

    helped bring northern blacks into the political system
  155. Washington v. Davis (1976)
    owtlawing discrimination in employment
  156. Mendez v. Westminster (1947)
    rights for Latinos (schools)