NCLEX-PN Potassium

Card Set Information

Author:
s1akr
ID:
13490
Filename:
NCLEX-PN Potassium
Updated:
2010-04-07 19:37:54
Tags:
nclexpn element potassium
Folders:

Description:
Need to know info on Potassium (K) for the NCLEX-PN
Show Answers:

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview

The flashcards below were created by user s1akr on FreezingBlue Flashcards. What would you like to do?


  1. Normal value for Potassium (K):
    3.5 - 5.1 mEq/L
  2. Common food sources for Potassium (K):
    • Avocado
    • Bananas
    • Cantaloupe
    • Carrots
    • Fish
    • Mushrooms
    • Oranges
    • Potatoes
    • Pork, beef, veal
    • Raisins
    • Spinach
    • Strawberries
    • Tomatoes
  3. Hypokalemia

    Description:
    Serum potassium level below 3.5 mEq/L

    -most common electrolyte imbalance and is potentially life threatening
  4. Hypokalemia

    Conditional causes:
    • -Diarrhea
    • -Vomitting
    • -Alkalosis
  5. Hypokalemia

    Pathological causes:
    • -Cushing's syndrome
    • -Renal disease
    • -Uncontrolled diabetes
  6. Hypokalemia

    Pharmacological causes:
    • -Use of non-potassium sparing diuretics
    • -Total parenteral nutrition
    • -Chronic use of corticosteroids
  7. Hypokalemia

    Procedural causes:
    • -Excessive gastric suction
    • -Excessive fistula drainage
  8. Hypokalemia

    Monitoring interventions:
    • -vital signs
    • -neuromuscular activity
    • -I&O
    • -cardiac changes during administration of potassium
    • -electrolyte values
  9. Hypokalemia

    Instruct client to not use:
    -salt substitutes containing potassium unless prescribed by the physician
  10. Before administering potassium check:
    -renal function
  11. A ______ is needed before administering potassium supplements (orally or monitor by IV)
    -prescription from physician
  12. Oral potassium preparation can cause 1._____ and should not be taken 2.______
    • 1.: GI irritation
    • 2.: on an empty stomach
  13. A client receiving more than 10 mEq/hr should be placed on 1._____; the infusion needs to be controlled by 2._____
    • 1.: a cardiac monitor
    • 2.: infusion device
  14. Oral potassium may need to be discontinued if client is complaining or presenting the following signs or symptoms:
    • abdominal pain, distention
    • nausea
    • vomiting
    • diarrhea
    • GI bleeding
  15. Hyperkalemia

    Description:
    A serum potassium level exceeding 5.1 mEq/L
  16. Hyperkalemia

    Conditional causes:
    • renal failure
    • intestinal obstruction
    • cell damage
    • metabolic acidosis
  17. Hyperkalemia

    Pharmacological causes:
    • excessive use of potassium based salt substitutes
    • excessive oral or parenteral administration of potassium
  18. Hyperkalemia

    Pathological causes:
    Addison's disease
  19. Hyperkalemia

    Procedural causes:
    Transfusion of stored blood (breakdown of older RBC release potassium)
  20. Hyperkalemia

    Monitoring interventions:
    • vital signs
    • cardiac changes
    • I&O
    • lab values
    • renal function
  21. Emergency treatment for Hyperkalemia includes rapid IV administration of 1._____ with 2._____ in order to 3._____
    • 1.: dextrose
    • 2.: regular insulin
    • 3.: move excess potassium into the cells
  22. In hyperkalemic clients, administer 1._____ orally or by enema as prescribed; it releases sodium ions in exchange for primarily potassium ions and absorbs the potassium into the GI tract for excretion.

    During this treatment, the nurse needs to monitor for 2._____ and 3._____ loss.
    • 1.: sodium polystyrene sulfonate (Kayexalate)
    • 2.: calcium
    • 3.: magnesium
  23. In hyperkalemic clients, the physician may prescribe 1._____ or 2._____ procedure to be done.
    • 1.: peritoneal dialysis
    • 2.: hemodialysis
  24. When blood transfusions are prescribed for a client with a potassium imbalance, the client should receive_____, if possible.
    fresh blood
  25. Hyperkalemia

    Patient instructions:
    • avoid foods high in potassium
    • avoid the use of salt substitutes or other potassium-containing substances
  26. Hypokalemia

    Signs and symptoms:
    • leg and abdominal cramps
    • lethargy and weakness
    • shallow respirations and thready pulse
    • confusion
    • decreased or absent reflexes
    • hypoactive bowel sounds and ileus
    • postural hypotension
  27. Hyperkalemia

    Signs and symptoms:
    • muscle weakness
    • paresthesias
    • hypotension
    • diarrhea
    • hyperactive bowel sounds
  28. In clients with Hypokalemia, their P waves are 1.__, T waves are 2.__, ST segment and U waves are 3.__
    • 1.: peaked
    • 2.: flat
    • 3.: depressed
  29. In clients with Hyperkalemia, their P waves are 1.__, QRS complex are 2.__, PR interval are 3.__, ST segments are 4.__, T waves are 5.__ and 6.__
    • 1.: flat
    • 2.: widened
    • 3.: prolonged
    • 4.: depressed
    • 5.: narrow
    • 6.: peaked

What would you like to do?

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview