Nutrition 12

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  1. What is nutrition?
    A scinec that studies interactions between living organisms and food.
  2. What are nutrients?
    Chemical substances that provide energy and structure and help regulate body processes.
  3. What are some recomended servings?
    6 to 11 servings of grains daily, half should be whole grains.

    3 to 5 servings of vegetables.

    2 to 4 servings of fruit.

    2 to 3 servings of meat ( 5 to 7 ounces )
  4. What are essential nutrients?
    Nutrients that the body cannot make itself or cannot make enough of. These nutrients need to be gotten from food.
  5. What are phyto chemicals?
    Substance found in plants that though are not necesarry for health, are still good for you.
  6. What are zoochemicals?
    Chemicals found in animal-based food that are not essential nutrients but can be beneficial to health.
  7. What are energy-yeilding nutrients?
    Nutrients that can be metabolized to provide energy .
  8. What are macronutrients?
    Energy-yielding nutrients that the body requires in relatively large amounts.
  9. What are micronutrients?
    Nutriens that the body needs in smaller amounts.
  10. What are organic and inorganic molecules?
    Organinc molecules have hydrogen bonded to carbon, inorganic molecules do not.
  11. What is the relationship between calorie, Calorie, and kilocarolie ( kcalorie )?
    1 Calorie on a food label is equal to 1 kilocalorie / kcal.

    calorie ( little c ) isn't really used for much but technically is 1/1000 of a kcal.

    1 kcal is the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 kg of water by 1 degree celcius.

    1 kcal = 4.18 kjoules
  12. Carbohydrates include sugars and starch...( like table sugar, sugar in fruit, sugar in milk ) and starch, like in potatoes and grains, both are carbohydrates.
    Carbohydrates include sugars ( like table sugar, sugar in fruit, sugar in milk ) and starch ( like in potatoes and grains ) both sugars and starch are carbohydrates.

    Sugars are the simplest form of carbohydrate and starches are more complex carbohydrates.

    Fiber is also carbohydrate.
  13. Lipids are fats and oils, can be saturated, polyunsaturated, monounsaturated.
    Lipids have a lot of energy per kilocalorie. Saturated fats can increase the risk of heart disease, poly and monounsaturated fats can reduce that risk. Cholesterol is a lipid.
  14. Proteins are necesarry for many things in the body. The body breaks them down into amino acids then puts those amino acids back together to make different proteins.
    Meat, fish, poultry, grain, vegetables, legumes are all sources of protein. Protein from meat best matches our own protein needs.
  15. Where do lipids, protein, and carbohydrates come from?
    Lipids come from oils and fats ( animal fats, fish oils, vegetable, olive, peanut oil ).

    Protein comes from meat, grains, fish, vegetables, poultry, legumes. Meat protein best matches our body's need for protein though.

    Carbohydrates are sugars and starch. Table sugar, sugar from milk, fruit, starchy foods are sources of carbohydrates.
  16. How many kilocalories of energy can be derived from 1 gram of: Carbohydrate, Protein, Lipid, Alcohol?
    Carbohydrate - 4g / kcal

    Protein - 4g / kcal

    Lipid - 9g / kcal

    Alcohol - 7g / kcal
  17. Vitamins are organic molecules...
    They have carbon bound to hydrogen. They do not provide energy but they do help regulate different processes in the body. 13 vitamins have been identified.
  18. Minerals are inorganic molecues...
    They do not have carbon bound to hydrogen. They do not provide energy for the body but are necesarry for regulating some processes in the body as well as supporting some structural needs.
  19. What is metabolism?
    The sum of all the chemical reactions that take place in a living organism.
  20. What is homeostasis?
    A stable environment inside the body.
  21. What is malnutrition?
    Malnutrition can refer to too much energy or nutrient intake or not enough energy or nutrient intake.
  22. What is nutrient density?
    How much nutrients a food provides compared to how much energy it provides.

    Food with a lot of kilocaries of energy but little nutrients is not as nutrient dense as food with a lot of kilocalories of energy and lots of nutrients.
  23. What is the scientific method?
    • Observation
    • Hypothesis
    • Experiment
    • Theory
  24. How does a single blind study work?
    In a single blind study, test subjects do not know if they are receiving the actual drug or a placebo, but test administrators do know. This has the potential to lead to administrators skewing test results unintentionally.
  25. How does a double blind study work?
    In a double blind study neither the test subjects or the administrators know if the subjects are receiving the placebo or drug. This prevents testers and administrators from skewing test results with expectations of how the drug is working.
  26. What is peer review?
    Peer review is when the results of a test are reviewed by peers / collegues / people who can understand and interpret the test and decide if it was conducted properly and whether or not the results seem accurate.
  27. What is epidemiology?
    The study of the relationship between health and disease and other factors in the environment or lifestyle of different populations.
  28. What are "human intervention studies" / "clinical trials"?
    Clinical trials / human intervention studies are where researchers make a change in the lives of people of a certain population and observe the effects of and measure the results of that change.
  29. What are case control studies?
    A study that compares people of the same sex, age, background who have a condition / disease with other people of the same age, sex, background who do not have the disease.
  30. What are nutrition intervention studies?
    Nutrition intervention studies are a kind of human interverntion study where the diet of a section of population is changed while another section of the population's diet remains the same to see what kind of difference the change might make in the population.
  31. What are depletion-repletion studies?
    Studies where something is removed from a system ( a certain vtiamin from a person's diet ) to see what kind of changes it may cause, then adds that something back until the change is reversed.

    In this way it can be determined what the effects of the absence of a certain vitamin has on the body. Repletion ( adding it back in ) will reveal 1. how much it takes to reverse the effects and 2. how much is necesarry for a healthy diet.
  32. What is a balance study?
    A balance study is where say, a vitamin is administered in a certain amount to a person.

    Then after a certain amount of time blood, urine, and fecal samples are taken.

    The amount of vitamin left in the urine will show how much of it was processed by the kidneys and then passed in urine.

    The amount of vitamin left in the stool will show how much of the vitamin was not absorbed at all.

    The amount of vitamin left in the blood shows how much of the vitamin has remained in the system.

    The amount of vitamin not accounted for is considered to be stored in the body.

    A negative balance occurs when the amount excreted is greater than the amount administered.

    A positive balance is when the excreted is less than the amount administered.

    A steady state happens when the amount excreted is the same as the amount administered.
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Nutrition 12
Nutrition 12 ch. 1
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