Earth Science: Topic 8 Review

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  1. The water part of the earth is called what?
  2. Water running on the earth's surface is called ?
  3. The process of water soaking in to the ground is called what?
  4. When water is stored on the surface of the earth as ice or snow, this is called what ?
    Water Retention
  5. What percentage of the earth's surface is covered in water?
    About 73%
  6. Evapotranspiration is a term used to include all ways that liquid water becomes what?
    Water vapor
  7. When liquid water leaves a plant through its leaf, and becomes water vapor, this is called what?
  8. A subsurface zone that water infiltrates down to but cannot pass through because it is solid is called what?
    Impermeable layer
  9. State the relationship between the slope of the land and the amount of infiltration.
    The steeper the slope, the less infiltration occurs. (Or-the flatter the slope, the greater is the infiltration)
  10. If the ground is 100% saturated, describe the amount of infiltration possible.
    No infiltration is possible.
  11. The AMOUNT of pore space (air space) in soil or in a rock is called its _________________.
  12. Rule: The rounder the soil particles are, the _____________ is the porosity. (greater or less)
  13. Rule: The more loosely packed the soil particles are, the __________ is the porosity.
    (greater or less)
  14. If soil particles are round and sorted, what is the rule about their porosity ? (.. when comparing different sizes of round, sorted particles)
    Round, sorted soil particles have all the SAME porosity.
  15. The speed with which water passes through the soil is called its ____________________
  16. Water moving in tiny spaces against gravity is called what? And what is the rule?
    Capillary action - The smaller the air spaces are, in the soil, the higher the water can climb.
  17. The larger the soil particles are, the ____________ the permeability is.
    (greater, or less ) -What does this mean?
    Greater - this means that the water will pass through faster with larger soil particles.
  18. State the relationship between permeability and capillarity.
    As permeability increases, capillarity decreases. (Inverse)
  19. Name 3 causes of runoff.
    1.raining faster than infiltration 2. ground saturated 3. steep slope 4. ground frozen
  20. The volume of water passing a certain point in a stream in a given amount of time is called a stream's _______________.
  21. A stream that flows only after it rains is called an ___________________ Is its stream bed above or below the water table ?
    Intermittent stream : the bed is above the water table
  22. Water that enters the stream from below is called what ?
    Base flow
  23. What is Ep and what determines it ?
    Potential Evapotranspiration is determined by the amount of heat from the sun.(It is the amount of water that could evaporate IF there was an unlimited supply.)
  24. Climate ratio is P/Ep. What kind of climate is a .4 climate ratio? and a 1.2 ? (think about it)
    .4 is arid 1.2 is humid
  25. Rule: The closer you get to the poles, the ___________ is the temperature RANGE.
  26. Coastal cities have what type of climates compared to landlocked cities ?
    Coastal cities have milder seasons. Landlocked cities have more extreme temperatures.
  27. Which side of a mountain has the warm dry climate, and why?
    Leeward side, because the air is dropping down and warming adiabatically.
  28. Where does an artesian well get its water from, the saturation zone, or an aquifer?
    An aquifer
  29. Define aquifer.
    -A permeable rock layer, saturated with water, sandwiched between 2 impermeable layers.
  30. Tell the story of thermal pollution, starting with factories adding heated water to a nearby lake. (use the terms oxygen, aerobic and anaerobic bacteria)
    The warmer water holds LESS oxygen and warm aerobic bac-t require more oxygen,so oxygen is quickly reduced. The anaerobic bacteria thrive without oxygen, so they become the pollutant in the lake.
  31. Eutrophication begins with fertilizers and phosphates (found in detergents) getting in to ground water. What happens next ? (Finish the story about how a lake becomes polluted with algae.)
    The chemicals travel in the ground water, downhill to the nearby lake. Both are good "plant food", so algae in the lake grows quickly and covers the lake surface. This blocks sunlight from hitting aquatic plants, which die, followed by fish deaths.
  32. Factories release smoke (containing sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide) which combines with water droplets in a cloud to make what?
    Weak sulfuric acid and nitric acid which then lands on the ground as acid rain.
  33. List some harmful results of acid rain.
    Acidic lakes, unable to support life. Death of trees/other vegetation in the forests. Illness or death of some animals.
  34. Name 2 actions that humans can take to help the acid rain problem.
    Lime the lakes, put "scrubbers" on the smokestacks, enact laws to limit the pollution released.
  35. Love Canal: How did the buried hazardous waste get to the surface and into people's yards and homes ?
    The waste was in metal barrels that rusted and leaked.( The families were unaware that their homes were built on a waste sight.)
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Earth Science: Topic 8 Review
2012-02-27 20:41:54
climate hydrologic cycle

Review questions for Topic 8: Hydrologic Cycle and Climate
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