AN SC 200

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mct
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134957
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AN SC 200
Updated:
2012-02-15 23:14:09
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2nd Definitions
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Def. 2
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  1. Acid Detergent Fibre
    Components of feedstuff not solubilized by an acid detergent (ie, cellulose, lignin)
  2. Acidosis
    Digestive upset caused by an drop in rumen pH
  3. Active Immunity
    Direct exposure to, or vaccination with, infectious agents to elicit an immune response
  4. Acute
    A disease in which symptoms arise quickly and to a severe degree; often not prolonged and ends in death or recovery
  5. Additive
    Substance added to the feed; usually for nutritional or medicinal purposes
  6. Antibody
    Protein produced by the body as part of the specific defence mechanism against/in response to invasion by foreign agents
  7. Adipose Tissue
    Fat cells (containing lipids), which are arranged into lobules
  8. Antidiuretic Hormone
    Secreted by the posterior pituitary; prevents excess whater loss from the body by re-absorbing water from the kidneys
  9. Antigen
    A substance foreign to the body of organism, which elicits an immune reaction upon entering the body
  10. Antitoxin
    Used in combating the toxin produced by bacteria
  11. Apparent Digestibility
    Proportion of nutrient in a feed that is digested and absorbed in the digestive tract, calculated as the amount of nutrient in feed minus the amount of nutrient in feces; apparent digestibility is not corrected for endogenous materials
  12. Apetite
    Desire to consume feed or water
  13. As-fed
    When considering the values of a feed when the inherent water has not been removed
  14. Backgrounding
    Putting calves on pasture before market
  15. Basal metabolism
    Energy expended by an animal which is resting in environmentally comfortable conditions approximately 12 hr after eating (post-absorptive state)
  16. Bioassay
    A test performed to determine the difference of the effect of a drug or substance on a test organism compared to the standard preparation
  17. Burro
    Donkey
  18. Butterfat
    Proportion of fat in milk produced by a dam
  19. Caesarian Section
    Surgical delivery of a calf (rather then vaginally)
  20. Calcitonin
    Released by the thyroid, decreases blood plasma levels of calcuim
  21. Cell-Mediated Immunity
    Reaction of which blood cells and phagocytic celss to the invasio of foreign materials
  22. Caprine
    Pertaining to goats
  23. Chevon
    Goat meet
  24. Chromosome
    DNA molecule
  25. Chronic
    A disease with a long duration which arises slowly; may be somewhat resistant to treatment, and can be somewhat resistance to treatment, and can result in impaired function
  26. Citric Acid Cycle (also TCA cycle of Krebs cycle)
    Metabolic pathway in animal cells through which carbohydrates are oxidized to energy
  27. Coenzyme
    Molecule which is necessary in the activation of an apoenzyme to an enzyme
  28. Concentrate
    Feedstuff high in energy; also low in fibre; eg. grains
  29. Conditioned Reflex
    Developed reflex where something unrelated becomes mentally associated with another thing
  30. Creep-feed
    Providing feed to nursing offspring in order to promote ease in weaning
  31. Crude Fibre
    Insoluble carbohydrates (upon boiling in acid and alkali during proximate analysis) of a feedstuff; poorly digested by animals
  32. Crude Protein
    Protein content of a feed stuff as estimated by multiplying the nitrogen content by a factor (often 6.25) during proximate analysis; the non-protein and true protein components taken together
  33. cwt
    hundred weight (cent in Latin, meaning 100); the unit of weight on which cattle are sold ($/cwt). For example, an 860 pound carcass at a rail price of $150/cwt would be worh 8.6 cwt x $150/cwt = $1290
  34. Dairy Character
    Characteristics unique to dairy breeds which make them suitable for use in the dairy industry
  35. Displacement behaviour
    Usual behavior of an animal which is used at the wrong time or place
  36. Doe
    Female goat
  37. Draft
    Animals (usually horses, cattle, oxen) used in pulling heavy loads or working argicultural land
  38. Drench
    Administratoin of liquid medication orally
  39. Dry Matter
    Proportion of a feed that remains upon removal of water
  40. Endemic
    A human disease particular to a certain geographical area or population; often, it involves low morbidity and persists over a long period of time
  41. Energy Hierarchy
    • Schematic of the energy consumed, produced, and utilized by an animal:
    • Gross Energy (GE): total energyl present in a feed as determined by bomb calorimetry
    • Digestible energy (DE): Gross energy minus the energy of feces
    • Metabolizable energy (ME): Digestable energy minus the energy of urine and gas
    • Net energy (NE): Metabolizable energy minus the heat increment of feeding
    • Net energy of maintance: Energy required to maintain normal body function (homeostasis)
    • Net energy of production: Net energy remaining after maintence has been completed which can go towards production of further substances, such as muscles, milk, eggs, wool or offspring
  42. Gross Energy (GE)
    Total energy present in a feed as determined by bomb calorimetry
  43. Digestible Energy (DE)
    Gross energy minus the energy of feces
  44. Metabolizable energy (ME)
    Digestible energy minus the energy of urine and gas
  45. Net energy (NE)
    Metabolizable energy minus the heat increment of feeding
  46. Net energy of maintance (NEm)
    Energy required to maintain normal body function (homeostasis)
  47. Net energy of production (NEp)
    Net energy remaining after maintance has been completed which can go towards production of further substances, such as muscles, milk, eggs, wool, or offspring
  48. Enzootic
    An animal disease commonly affecting a certain geographic area or population
  49. Epiornitic
    Avian epidemic
  50. Epizootic
    Animal epidemic
  51. Etiology
    Study of factors that contribute to the occurence of a disease
  52. Exogenous
    Produced or caused outside the body
  53. Filly
    Young female horse
  54. Five freedoms
    • Guidelines established in an effort to define the optimal living conditions of animals in captivity
    • Freedom from pain, injury, and disease
    • Freedom from starvation and malnutrition
    • Freedom from fear and distress
    • Freedom from thermal and physical discomfort
    • Freedom to express normal behaviours
  55. Flight zone
    Distance of an object to an animal before the animal will move away
  56. Flushing
    Increased level or quantity of feed 2 to 3 weeks prior to breeding in order to increase fertility
  57. Foal
    Young offspring of a horse (either gender)
  58. Founder
    Overearing of grain or rich grass causing severe hoof inflammation
  59. Functional Food
    A functional food is similar in appearance to, or may be, a conventional food that is consumed as part of a usual diet, and is demonstrated to have physiological benefits and/or reduce the risk of chronic disease beyond basic nutritional functions (ie. they contain bioactive compound)
  60. Gander
    Male goose
  61. Gelding
    Castrated male horse
  62. Goose
    Female goose
  63. Gosling
    Immature goose
  64. Grower
    Ration for young and growing animals
  65. Guinea Hen
    Female guinea fowl
  66. Guinea Rooster
    Male guinea fowl
  67. Habituation
    Animal's progressively decreased reaction in response to a stimulus
  68. Henny
    Infertile offspring of a female donkey and male horse
  69. Hind
    Adult female elk
  70. Homeostasis
    Effect of mechanisms within the body which maintain internal environmental conditions between acceptable standards
  71. Homeorhesis
    Mechanisms which regulated the internal environment of the body during times of physiological change/stress, such as pregnancy or illness
  72. Homeothermic
    Animals which are warm-blooded; can maintain their own body temperature, despite fluctuations in the external environmental temperature
  73. Humoral Immunity
    Production of highly specific antibodies in response to the presence of antigens
  74. Hybrid
    Describing the offspring of two different strains or breeds of animals, in which there are genetic traits present from both of the parents
  75. Hybrid vigour
    Degree to which an offspring with a combination of breed genetics is superior to its non-crossbred parents
  76. Immunoglobulin
    Globular protein in the blood serum which has antibody properties
  77. Inbreeding
    Production of offspring by related parents
  78. Infectious
    Capable of causing an infection in the body
  79. Invasiveness
    Ability of a foreign agent to spread from the original site of infiltration of the body of the organism to the circulatory system
  80. Ionophore
    Molecule which increases the permeability of a cell membrane to an ion; often used as a growth promoting agent
  81. Isomer
    Molecular compound having the same constituents of composition as another, but the constituents are found in another formation
  82. Isotope
    Atoms of which there are more than one variety, in that the atoms have the same number of proton but a varying number of neutrons
  83. Jenny
    Female donkey
  84. Jack
    Male donkey
  85. Keet
    Young guinea fowl
  86. Kid
    Young goat
  87. Lamb
    Young sheep, under 1 year of age
  88. Mare
    Female horse
  89. Metabolite
    Substance produced as a result of metabolism
  90. Morbidity
    Number or proportion of sick animals
  91. Mortality
    Number or proportion of animal deaths
  92. Mule
    Non-fertile offspring of a female horse and a male donkey
  93. Mulesing
    Practice of cutting strips of skin in the proximity of the anus of a sheep, which will deter the growth of wool, preventing manure build-up and the resulting fly attraction
  94. Mutton
    Meat from a sheep that is more than 1 year in age
  95. Neutral Detergent Fibre
    Components of a feedstuff not solubilized by neutral detergent (ie, hemicellulose, cellulose, lignin - mainly constituents of plant cell walls)
  96. Nitrogen-free extract (NFE)
    Result of proximate analysis which indicates the proportion in a feed that is digestible carbohydrates
  97. Nutrient
    Substance which provides nourishment in a feed; carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, vitamins, minerals
  98. Nutraceutical
    A nutraceutical is a product isolated or purified from foods that is generally sold in medicinal forms not usually associated with foods. A nutraceutical is demonstrated to have a physiological benefit or provide protection against chronic disease.
  99. Operant Conditioning
    Learning to complete an action in order to obtain a reward
  100. Outbreeding
    Production of offspring by parents that are not related
  101. Outcrossing
    Production of offspring by parents that are not related but are of the same breed
  102. Ovine
    Pertaining to sheep
  103. Pandemic
    Disease which affects a large number of people within a population or across a large geographical area
  104. Passive Immunity
    `Donation` of temporary immunity from a resistant animal to a susceptible one by the administration of developed antibodies
  105. Pea Chick
    Young peacock
  106. Pea cock
    Male peacock
  107. Pea hen
    Female peacock
  108. Persistency
    Degree to which an animal can maintain a production curve in the decreasing portion (especially egg and milk production)
  109. Pigeon Cock
    Male Pigeon
  110. Pigeon Hen
    Female Pigeon
  111. Poikilothermic
    Pertaining to animals whose body temperature fluctuates, following the pattern of the environmental air temperature
  112. Polled
    Types of cattle that genetically have no horns
  113. Prion
    Infectious agents made of protein, often occuring in the nervous system causing Transmissible Spongioform Encephalopathies (TSE) such as scrapies (sheep) and BSE (cattle)
  114. Proximate Analysis
    Procedures used to determine the proportions of protein, lipid, dry matter, ash, and nitrogen-free extract, from a substance
  115. Pyrimidine
    Single-ringed nucleic acids; cytosine, thymine, and uracil
  116. Purine
    Double-ringed nucleic acids; adenine and guanine
  117. Quiviet (Qiviut)
    Woolly undercoat of a muskox
  118. Radioimmunoassay
    Method of quantifying very small amounts of hormones or drugs by measuring the binding (or inhibition of binding) of an antibody attached to a radiolabelled substance
  119. Ram
    Intact male sheep
  120. Ram Lamb
    Immature male sheep
  121. Resistance
    Ability of an organism to resist infection
  122. Roughage
    Coarse feed, high in fibre
  123. Satiety
    Sensation of not requiring food; being satisfied of food
  124. Scours
    Diarrhea in young animals, cause by bacterial infection, changes to or an inappropriate diet, or environmental factors
  125. Selection Differential
    Difference between animals selected to be parents when pursing the improvement of a certain trait and the rest of the flock/herd
  126. Single Desk Selling System
    Producers sell product to a single organization, rather than having to choose a buyer from a market
  127. Sire
    Parental parental unit
  128. Squab
    Young Pigeon
  129. Stag
    Intact male deer
  130. Stallion/Stud
    Intact male horse
  131. Started
    Ration for very young animals
  132. Steer
    Castrated male bovine
  133. Stereotypy
    Abnormal behavior originating from a frustrated natural behavior

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