Exam I

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Exam I
2012-02-14 16:09:12
Freshwater Ecology

CH 1-4
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  1. synechoccus
    reed/green bacterium
  2. 4 properties of water
    • Polar
    • Hydrogen Bonds
    • Exist in 3 states of matter
    • present in liquid form only on earth
  3. Temperature where water is densest
    3.94 or 4 celcius
  4. Property of water (heat)
    Highest specific heat of any liquid (besides ammonia)
  5. Equation for density of water
    D= 1-(6.63*10^-6) *(T – 4)^2
  6. Function of temperature and dissolved solids in water
  7. Dynamic Viscosity
    resistance to flow
  8. Kinematic Viscosity
    ratio of dynamic viscosity to density which determines how readily fluids flow
  9. Phytoplantanton saturated light growth
    50 micromoles m-2 s-1
  10. Phytoplankton spring increase
  11. Fish vision for predation
    1.5 x 10-4
  12. Negative phototaxis in crusteanceans
    1 x 10-6
  13. Measure of Light
    Photon Flux
  14. Photon Flux Density
    A micromole m-2 s-1 is a measure of photon flux density
  15. 3 critical light values
    • Photosnthesis
    • Phototaxis
    • Vision
  16. Percolation or infiltration
    sustains groundwater reservoirs
  17. physiological requirement of water
    2-3 liters per capita per day
  18. domestic consumption of water
    250 liters per day per capita
  19. Agricultural use per capita of water
    several thousand liters per day
  20. 3 reasons for potable water scarcity
    • 1) Every person does not have equal access to available stream flow
    • 2) Upstream use degrades and withdraws supply making water unavailable for many uses and users
    • 3) Adequate water for the future requires sustainable management now.
  21. amount of US water supply used for electricity
  22. Definition of life
    A complex, carbon-based, adaptive, energy transforming and self-replicating system dependent on liquid water as a mediator and catalyst of essential physical and chemical reactions
  23. Bioenergetic equation
    Energy required = Growth+maintenance+reproduction
  24. FReshwater or Salt water organisms have higher metabolic rates
    freshwater organisms have a higher basal metabolic rate than marine organisms
  25. Direct colinization
    Some elements of biota entered directly from marine environments by upstream migration.
  26. Secondary Colinization
    Many direct ancestors of the aquatic fauna were terrestial
  27. Most diverse group in freshwater
    insects (unsuccesful in the ocean)
  28. Most abundent forms of life (Kingdom)
  29. Eukaryota Kingdom
    higher multicellular life
  30. Archaea Kingdom
    • RNA based
    • Mainly extremophiles
  31. Aquatic heterotroph
    Aquatic Heterotrophs gather energy rich compounds from other organisms and span a great size range
  32. Aquatic Autotrophs
    Aquatic Autotrophs produce their own organic compounds and structures from inorganic substances.They span a narrower range of sizes than heterotrophs
  33. Equation for Photosynthesis
    6CO2 +6H2O = C6H12O6 + 6O2
  34. Equation for respiration
    C6H12O6 + 6O2 = 6CO2 +6H2O
  35. piscavore
    consume other fish
  36. 4 trophic levels
    • Primary producer
    • herbivores
    • Planktivores
    • Predators
  37. photic zone
    enought light for photosynthesis
  38. aphotic zone
    not enough light for photosynthesis
  39. Pelegic zone
    open water
  40. littoral zone
    near shore, light penetrates to bottem
  41. Profundal zone
    the sediment zone at depths beyond where primary producers can live
  42. Ground water
    widely distributed water supply found in interstitial spaces in subsurface rocks and soils; after glaciers, the largest reservoir of fresh water on the globe
  43. water table
    upper surface of saturated groundwater
  44. Head (loss)
    vertical drop between two points in water table surface
  45. Hydrolic Gradient
    slope of the water table surface between two points (Head/horizontal distance)
  46. Hydrolic Conductivity
    rate of flow of groundwater for a slope of one
  47. Rate of flow
    Gradient * conductivity
  48. unconfined aquifer
    lacks impermeable layer over water table
  49. confined aquifer
    protected from surface water by impermeable layer
  50. Cased well
    impermeable material to prevent direct influence of surface water
  51. Vadoe water
    water in unsaturated pore spaces above water table
  52. Porosity
    proportion of empty space in sediment,ground or rock
  53. permiability
    measure of ease water moves through material
  54. aquifer
    body of rock or sediment that can supply water in useful amounts
  55. recharge zone
    area where aquifer gains water, always originates from surface water at some time and place.
  56. Discharge zone
    area where an aquifer loses water usually to stream, river, wetland or lake (low point in topography)
  57. Hard water
    High concentrations of Ca and Mg
  58. Soft water
    low concentrations of base metal ions and bicarbonates
  59. Water's MAJOR ions
    Na, K, Ca, Mg, HCO3, SO4, SiO2, Cl
  60. Water's major NUTRIENTS
    Nitrogen Phosphorus
  61. Water's Trace elements
    Transitional metals
  62. Rain ph @ Unconatminated atmosphere
  63. Chemical Weathering
    is the addition of solutes into water by the dissolution of geological materials. It occurs primarily in soil horizons and ground water.
  64. Physical Weathering
    is the addition of insoluble mineral materials (and resistant organic fragments) which result from incongruent chemical weathering.
  65. Congruent Chemical Weathering
    occurs when a mineral is completely dissolved.
  66. Incongruent
    chemical weathering results when a mineral (usually a silicate mineral) is only partially solubilized and the products are a stable mineral phase such as a clay or iron oxide AS WELL AS cations and anions (usually bicarbonate ion).
  67. 4 way humans alter chemistry of ground water
    • Introducing high concentrations of “natural” substances to ground water
    • Leaking manufactured or refined liquids such as hydrocarbons from storage tanks into groundwater
    • Leaching high concentrations of acids into groundwater from mine tailings or waste rock
    • Drawing down water table may lead to salination of wells from deeper ground water
  68. Discharge
  69. Laminar
    hydraulically smooth, strands of water slip over one another, and the organism, streamlines are parallel, faster strands slip over slower strands with little vertical mixing (exchange of water between stream segments)
  70. Turbulent
    hydraulically rough, chaotic eddies and swirls, streamlines are not parallel; effective vertical mixing as waters move up an down
  71. Reynolds Number
    mathematical expression relating velocity (V), viscosity (nu) and length, (L, linear dimension of an object), to determine if flow is turbulent or laminar
  72. Equation for Reynolds Number
    Re=VL/Nu Nu= viscosity
  73. When Reynolds # is less than 500
  74. When Renolds # is greater than 2000