Chapter 19, respiratory system

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Chapter 19, respiratory system
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2012-02-17 06:07:42
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Chapter 19 respiratory system
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Chapter 19, respiratory system
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  1. Which of the following is NOT part of the upper respiratory tract?
    A.nasal cavities
    B.Pharynx
    C.All of these are parts of the upper respiratory tract
    D.Esophagus
    D.Esophagus
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  2. Air passing along the respiratory tract to the lungs is ______.
    A.cleansed with cilia
    B.warmed
    C.moistened
    D.all of the above
    D.all of the above
  3. What phospholipid decreases the surface tension of the alveoli?
    surfactant
  4. When temperature of the blood is increased, hemoglobin will do which of the following?
    release oxygen
  5. Why is the trachea supported by C-shaped cartilage rings?
    to hold it open all the time and to allow the esophagus to expand when swallowing
  6. Which of the following muscles contract to start inspiration?
    diaphragm and external intercostals
  7. What is the force responsible for normal expiration supplied by?
    Elastic recoil of tissues and surface tension
  8. Air moved in and out with each breath
    tidal volume
  9. Gas exchange in the lungs occurs between air in the __________ and blood in surrounding capillaries.
    alveoli
  10. What structures enter the lungs?
    primary bronchi
  11. What is the amount of air that can be inhaled forcefully after a normal inspiration?
    Inspiratory reserve volume
  12. What nerve innervates the diaphragm?
    phrenic
  13. The windpipe is also known as the
    Trachea
  14. The amount of air that can be forcefully expired beyond tidal volume is the
    expiratory reserve volume.
  15. Movement of air in and out of the lungs
    Breathing/Pulmonary Ventilation
  16. The process where gases are exchanged between atmosphere and RBC
    Respiration
  17. What are the 3 types of respiration?
    • Internal
    • External
    • Cellular
  18. Which respiration type has an extensive area where gas between lungs and blood is exchanged
    External respiration
  19. Which respiration type occurs between the blood and body cells?
    Internal respiration
  20. Which respiration type uses oxygen to obtain energy from food molecules and gives off carbon dioxide as waste?
    Cellular respiration
  21. ______ aid in the removeal of microbes from the respiratory track
    Cilia
  22. What are the general functions of the respiartory system?
    • breathing
    • respiration
    • defends against microbes
    • produces sound
    • smell
  23. Name the organs of the upper respiratory track
    • nose
    • nasal cavity
    • sinuses
    • pharynx
  24. Name the organs of the lower respiratory system
    • larynx
    • trachea
    • bronchial tree
    • lungs
  25. First line of defense against large particles entering the repiratory system
    nasal hairs
  26. Entrance to the respiratory track
    nostrils/external nares
  27. What divides the nasal cavity into right and left chambers?
    nasal septum
  28. Space behind the nose
    nasal cavity
  29. Delicate scroll shaped bones that form lateral walls of the nasal cavity
    nasal conchae
  30. Which nasal conchae are covered by repiratory mucosa and contain one type of epithelium and a CT layer?
    Inferior and middle conchae
  31. Which nasal conchae is covered by specilized olfactory epithelium?
    superior conchae
  32. Describe the structure of the nasal mucous membrane
    Pseudostratified, ciliated, columnar epithelium with goblet cells
  33. What is the function of the nasal mucous membrane?
    • warm air
    • moisten air
    • entrap small particles
    • runny nose
  34. Where does mucous with trapped particles travel?
    to the pharynx, then throat where it is swallowed and sent to the stomach for destruction
  35. Boney spaces of the skull open to nasal cavity that are lined with mucous membrane
    Sinuses/paranasal sinuses
  36. Lightens the weight of the skull and amplify speech sounds
    paranasal sinuses
  37. Common passage way for digestive and respiratory system
    pharynx/throat
  38. funnel shaped structure that connects nasal cavity and mouth to larynx and esophagus, 5 inches in length
    pharynx/throat
  39. Enlargement at the top of trachea
    larynx/voice box
  40. provides patent airway, switching mechansim to route air anf food, voice production
    larynx/voice box
  41. Hylaine cartilage that protudes in the front of the neck
    thyroid cartilage
  42. Lowermost portion of the larynx, ring shaped, inferior to thyroid cartilage
    Cricoid cartilage
  43. Leaf-shaped cartilage that allows air to enter larynx, but not food, stimulates cough reflex
    epiglottis
  44. When eating, larynx moves ____ and epiglottis moves _____ due to the tounge
    • up
    • down
  45. Ladel shape and located above and on the other side of circoid cartilage
    arytenoid cartilage
  46. Superior folds of mucous membrane of larynx, inelastic and covered by mucous membrane, help close larynx during swallowing
    false vocal cords/vestibular folds
  47. Lower folds in the larynx with large bundles of elastic fibers
    true vocal cords
  48. higher tension in the cords causes a higher
    pitch
  49. triangular opening between the vocal cords, leads to trachea
    glottis
  50. thin walled tube joining the larynx and primary bronchi, anterior to esophagus
    trachea/windpipe
  51. What is attached to the lungs surface
    visceral pluera
  52. What structure enters the lungs
    primary bronchi
  53. What is the correct sequence of flow of air through the bronchioles towards the alveoli?
    Bronchioles, terminal bronchioles, respiratory bronchioles, alveolar ducts, alveoli
  54. Carbonic anhydrase catalyzes the reaction of carbon dioxide and water to form
    carbonic acid.
  55. Without surfactant, the _________ would collapse preventing inspiration.
    alveoli
  56. Gas exchange between the air in the alveoli and the blood in nearby capillaries occurs primarily by
    Diffusion
  57. Air moved in and out with each breath
    tidal volume
  58. What serous membrane lines the thoracic cavity?
    parietal pleura
  59. The amount that is always left in the lungs after expiration is the
    residual volume.
  60. What phospholipid decreases the surface tension of the alveoli?
    surfactant
  61. Gas excgange between air and blood
    external respiration
  62. The utilization of oxygen by metabolic processes is correctly referred to as _____.
    A)cell respiration
    B)external respiration
    C)ventilation
    D)respiration
    A)cell respiration
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  63. What is the anatomical term for the throat?
    A)larynx
    B)esophagus
    C)pharynx
    D)trachea
    C)pharynx
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  64. The epiglottis is part of the _____ and covers the glottis.
    A)trachea
    B)oropharynx
    C)larynx
    D)laryngopharynx
    C)larynx
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  65. Which of these is the sum of the other three?
    A)inspiratory reserve
    B)vital capacity
    C)expiratory reserve
    D)tidal volume
    B)vital capacity
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  66. Which of the following does NOT stimulate the medullary breathing center chemosensitive neurons?
    A)high blood carbon dioxide
    B)high spinal fluid acidity
    C)low blood oxygen
    D)low blood pH
    C)low blood oxygen
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  67. What is the purpose of the C rings in the trachea?
    • to prevent collapse and keep the airway open at all times
    • allows room for esophagus to expandwhen swallowing
  68. What type of muscle is used to comlplete the rings on the opposite side?
    smooth
  69. What type of epithelial cells make up the mucous membrane of the trachea?
    pseudostratified columnar epithelium
  70. Thick layer of CT with muscle glands that open to epithelial surface
    submucosa of the trachea
  71. Which way do cilia move in the trachea?
    up
  72. When does the trachea divide into primary bronchi?
    5th thoracic vertebra
  73. branched air passages that lead from the trachea to the air sacs of the lungs
    bronchial tree
  74. Where does the bronchial tree begin?
    right and left primary bronchi outside of the lungs
  75. cartiaginous ridge located between the openings of the right and left primary bronchi
    carina
  76. smaller branches of the secondary bronchi
    tertiary bronchi(segmented)
  77. what enters the pulmonary lobule?
    intralobular bronchi
  78. What surrounds the lobule of the bronchioles?
    CT septum
  79. What branches off from intralobular bronchioles?
    terminal branchioles
  80. First structures in gas exchange sequence
    respiratory bronchioles
  81. tubes that extend from respiratory bronchiole
    aveolar ducts
  82. thin-walled, closely packed outpouchings of the alevolar ducts, common chamber connected to aveoli
    aveolar sac
  83. actual site of gas exchange, gives lungs spongy apperance
    aveoli
  84. As the respiratory tubes branch out, the amount of cartilage _______ and the smooth muscle layer _________
    • decreases
    • increases
  85. Lack cartilage, surronede by smooth muscle
    bronchioles
  86. What tissue composes aveoli
    simple squamos
  87. Where are elastic fibers located in the respiratory system?
    • smooth muscle fibers
    • CT surrounding respiratory tubes
  88. Where would you find pseudostratified ciliated cloumnar epithelium with goblet cells
    • larger respiratory tubes
    • nasal mucous membrane
    • trachea mucous membrane
  89. What are the finer tubes(begining with respiatory bronchioles) lined with
    cubodial epithelium
  90. each ______ is surrounded by blood capillaries
    aveolus
  91. located in thoracic cavity, enclosed by diaphragm and thoracic cage, seperated by mediastinum
    lungs
  92. Larger lung, divied into 3 lobes
    right
  93. Lung divided into 2 lobes
    left
  94. What joins the lung at the hilus
    bronchi, pulmonary vessels, nerves, and lymphatics
  95. serous membrane attached to lung
    visceral pleura
  96. outer serous membrane that lines thoracic cavity
    parietal pleura
  97. space bewteen visceral and parietal pleura of lungs, filled with serous fluid, holds pleural membranes together
    pleura cavity
  98. 2 stages of pulmonary ventilation
    • inspiration
    • expiration
  99. air forced in lungs by atmoshperic pressure
    inspiration
  100. pressure that always equalizes with atmosphere
    intr-alveolar pressure
  101. intra-alveolar pressure ______ causing outside air to go into airways by _________
    • reduces
    • atmoshperic pressure
  102. what is the first event of inspiration
    diaphrgam contracts and moves downward
  103. What nerve carries impulses to diaphrgam
    phrenic
  104. gas volume is inversely proportional to pressure
    Boyle's law
  105. What muscles are involved in inspiration
    • diaphgram
    • external intercostals
  106. aids in holding the pleural membranes together during lung expansion
    surface tension (caused by water moleculesbeing attracted to one another)
  107. What molecule contributes to natural recoil of lungs during expiration, coats aveolar walls, reduces aveoli to smallest size
    water
  108. Alevolar ventilation made possible by
    sufactant(lipoproteins in aveolar film)
  109. What is the purpose of sufactant in the aveolar film?
    • reduce surface tension
    • discourages aveolar collapse
  110. Cells that secreate sufactant continouously
    septal cells(aveolar type II cells)
  111. movement of air to external enviorment
    expiration
  112. Natural tendency for lungs to recoil
    resting(quiet) repiration
  113. elastic recoil of the lungs _______ the pleura pressure inside of the pleura cavity by _____ mm Hg
    • reduces
    • 4
  114. When interpleural pressure is equal to atmosohereic pressure what happens to the lungs?
    collapse
  115. what are the forces reponsible for quiet repiration?
    • elastic recoil of the lungs
    • surface tension
  116. active process, abdominal walls contract, posterior internal intercostals pull thoracic cage down and in and larger volumes of air are expelled
    forced exhilation
  117. measurement of different volumes of air being moved in and out of the lungs
    spirometry
  118. air that moves in and out of the lungs during quiet breathing,500 ml
    tidal volume
  119. air inspired above normal tidal volume, 3000 ml
    inspiratory reserve volume
  120. air expired above normal tidal expiration, 1100 ml
    expiratory reserve volume
  121. air remaining in lungs at all times,1200ml
    residual volume
  122. maximum volume of air a person can inhale following exhalation of tidal volume,3500 ml
    inspiratory capacity
  123. tidal volume + inspiratory reserve volume=
    inspiratory capacity
  124. volume of air that remains in lungs after exhalation of tidal volume, 2300 ml
    functional residual capacity
  125. expiatory reserve volume + residual volume =
    functional residual volume
  126. maximum air exhaled after taking the deepest breath, 4600 ml
    vital capacity
  127. Tidal volume + Inspiratoey reserve volume + expiratiory reserve volume =
    vital capacity
  128. sum of all air volumes, 5800 ml
    total lung capacity
  129. vital capacity + residual air volume =
    total lung capacity
  130. What 2 parts of the brain aid in respiration?
    • medulla
    • pons
  131. What 2 groups of neurons are found in the medullary respiration center?
    • Ventral respiratory group
    • dorsal respiratory group
  132. What group of neurons is responsible for the basic pattern of breathing?
    ventral group
  133. What group of neurons aid in forced breathing by stimulating inspiratory muscles? primarily diaphgram
    Dorsal group
  134. what respiratory group is located in the pons?
    pontine respiratory group(pneumotaxic)
  135. sends impulses to VRG, limits time span of inspiration
    PRG
  136. Factors that effect breathing
    • chemicals
    • streaching lungs
    • emotions
  137. located in ventral portion of medulla near vagus nerve, sensitive to increases of CO2 and H+
    central chemoreceptors
  138. stimulates respiratory center, increases breathing rate
    central chemoreceptors
  139. CO2 combines with H2O to form ______ which , in turn releases _______.
    • carbonic acid
    • H+ ions and biocarbonate ions
  140. Where in the body does the CO2 react with the water
    CSF
  141. Central chemoreceptors are influenced by ________ and stimulate ______
    • hydrogen ions
    • breathing rate and tidal volume
  142. Where are peripheral chemoreceptors located?
    • carotid bodies
    • aortic bodies
  143. peripheral chemoreceptors are sensitive to
    low Oxygen
  144. prevents overinflation of lungs, triggered by streaching of lungs during inspiration, sends inhibiting impulse through vagus nerve to PRG
    hering-breuer reflex
  145. Hyperventilation causes CO2 to ______
    decrease
  146. site of gas exchange
    alveoli
  147. alternate pathways in alveoli
    alveolar pores
  148. What makes up respiratory membrane
    • alveloar walls
    • capillary walls
    • 2 thin basement membranes
  149. What percentage of air is nitrogen?
    78%
  150. What percentage of air is Oxygen?
    21%
  151. What percentage of air is CO2?
    0.04%
  152. What is atmospheric pressure at sea level?
    760 mm Hg
  153. ______ diffuses from alveloar air to blood
    oxygen
  154. ______ diffuses from blood into alveolar air
    Carbon dioxide
  155. Each gas will diffuse between blood and surroundings to equalize its _______
    partial pressure
  156. What components of blood transport oxygen?
    • hemoglobin- 98%
    • plasma- 2%
  157. globin is the _____ portion of hemoglobin
    protein
  158. heme contains _____ which combines with _____
    • iron
    • oxygen
  159. How many molecules of oxygen can hemoglobin carry?
    4
  160. The chemical bond between oxygen and hemoglobin is _______ and ______
    • unstable
    • reversible
  161. What causes oxygen in the blood to increase?
    • CO2 increases
    • Acidosis
    • Blood temp increases
  162. Incomplete combustion fumes form _______
    carbon monoxide
  163. _________ combines with hemoglobin to form a stable compound
    carbon monoxide
  164. How is carbon dioxide transported?
    • carbaminohemoglobin
    • bicarbonate ions
    • dissolved in plasma
  165. 15-25% of carbon transport, CO2 attaches to globin of the hemoglobin molecule
    carbaminohemoglobin
  166. Most CO2 transported this way, uses cabonic anhydrase
    bicarbonate ions(HCO-3)
  167. Enzyme that forms carbonic acid
    carbonic anhydrase
  168. carbonic acid releases _____ and _____ ions
    • H+
    • HCO3-
  169. Biocarbinate ions enter the ______
    plasma
  170. H+ combine with ________ to act as a buffer for drastic pH changes
    deoxyhemoglobin
  171. smallest amount of CO2 dissolved in ______
    plasma(7%)

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