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body has to use immature WBC components to fight infection.
attack and destroy foreign matter
Eosinophils, Neutrophils, Basophils
Derive from myeloid stem cells in bone marrow; short lifespan (hrs-days); 60-80% of normal blood leukocytes.
First responders/Initiate immune response; Inflammatory response; lifespan months-years; some become macrophages; largest WBC;
derive from lymphoid stem cells of bone marrow; primary cells involved in specific immune responses.
Most plentiful granulocyte;phagocytic cells (Engulf and Destroy foreign agents such as bacteria and sm. part.); First to arrive.
10days to maturation; circ 1/2 life 6-10 hrs.
3-6 days to maturation; half life in circ 30 minutes, in tissue 12 days.
Large number in GI ans Resp tracts to help protect against worms. Phagocytic cells.
Involved in hypersensitivity response by inactivating some infammatory chems released during infammatory response.
Least common: 0.5-1%; not phagocytic; granules within contain proteins and chems like heparin, histamine, bradykinin, serotonin and slow reacting substance of anaphylaxis; these are released during acute hypersensitivity reaction or stress response.
Specific response; includes memory and active limited responses.
Antibody Mediated (Humoral) Immune Response
produced by B cells activated by contact with and antigen.
Vasodilation; release of histamine, prostaglandins, leudotrienes; redness and heat; edema; inhanced clotting factors.
Edema, redness, heat.
phagocytic process; imigration of leukocytes and phagocytosis.
CRP; may be present with chronic infammation, in blood of pts at risk for hrt disease.
body tissues broken down
body tissues built up
forces O2 into cells therefore increasing to above normal rates and promoting healing.
What factors impair wound healing?
Low protein diet, lack of oxygen, hyperglycemia.
acute pain, impaired tissue integrity, infection
mood disorders, moon face, fragile skin, immune suppression, elevated blood sugar, stomach irritation, GI bleeding, osteoporosis, and severe rebound manifestations can occur.
Aspirin, Ibuprofen (Motrin, advil), Celebrex, Diclofenac (Voltaren), Etodolac (Lodine), Fenoprofen (Nalfon), Flurbiprofen (Ansaid), Indomethacin (Indocin), Ketoprofen (Orudis), Meclofenamate sodium (Meclomen), Nabumetone (Relafen), Naproxen (Aleve, Anaprox, Naprosyn), Oxaprozin (Dayprol), Piroxicam (Feldene), Sulindac (Clinoril), Tolmetin (Tolectin), Toradol.
Stages of infection:
Incubation Period- no manifestations yet
Prodromal Stage- manifestations appear
Acute Phase- more severe manifestations appear
Convalescent Stage- repair, manifestations resolve
- Physical Barriers: skin, tears, sweat
- Hostile Env.: germs everywhere
- Anti-microbial factors: tears, saliva
- Resp. Defenses: cilia, coughing
Why older adults have higher risk for infections:
nutrition, permeable skin, thinner skin, less perfusion...