An organelle consisting of two subunits, each composed of ribosomal RNA and protein; the site of protein synthesis, during which the sequence of bases of messenger RNA is translated into the sequence of amino acids in a protein.
Not using oxygen.
A system of membranous tubes and channels within eukaryotic cells; the site of most protein and lipid syntheses
A vesicle that is typically large and consists of a single membrane enclosing a fluid-filled space.
A long, hairlike extension of the plasma membrane; in eukaryotic cells, it contains microtubules arranged in a pattern. The movement of flagella propel some cells through fluids.
The membrane-bound organelle of eukaryotic cells that contains the cell's genetic material.
A hollow, cylindrical strand, found in eukaryotic cells, that is composed of the protein tubulin; part of the cytoskeleton used in the movement of organelles, cell growth, and the construction of cilia and flagella.
The outer membrane of a cell, composed of a bilayer of phospholipids in which proteins are embedded
A membranous sac, within a single cell, in which food is enclosed. Digestive enzymes are released into the vacuole, where intracellular digestion occurs
A membrane-bound organelle containing intracellular digestive enzymes.
Referring to cells of the domains Bacteria or Archaea. Prokaryotic cells have genetic material that is not enclosed in a membrane-bound nucleus; they lack other membrane-bound organelles.
A structure, found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells, that performs a specific function; sometimes refers specifically to membrane-bound structures, such as the nucleus or endoplasmic reticulum.
A small, membrane-bound sac within the cytoplasm.
One of life's three domains; consists of prokaryotes that are only distantly related to members of the domain Archaea.
The complex of DNA and proteins that makes up eukaryotic chromosomes.
One of life's three domains; consists of prokaryotes that are only distantly related to members of the domain Bacteria.
A structure resembling a centriole that produces a cilium or flagellum and anchors this structure within the plasma membrane
The hypothesis that certain organelles, especially chloroplasts and mitochondria, arose as mutually beneficial associations between the ancestors of eukaryotic cells and captured bacteria that lived within the cytoplasm of the pre-eukaryotic cell
The material contained within the plasma membrane of a cell, exclusive of the nucleus.
An organelle, bounded by two membranes, that is the site of the reactions of aerobic metabolism.
A short, hairlike projection from the surface of certain eukaryotic cells that contains microtubules in a 9+2 arrangement. The movement of cilia may propel cells through a fluid medium or move fluids over a stationary surface layer of cells.
The region of the eukaryotic nucleus that is engaged in ribosome synthesis; consists of the genes encoding ribosomal RNA, newly synthesized ribosomal RNA, and ribosomal proteins.
A large, fluid-filled vacuole occupying most of the volume of many plant cells; performs several functions, including maintaining turgor pressure
A pigment found in chloroplasts that captures light energy during photosynthesis; absorbs violet, blue, and red light but reflects green light.
Referring to cells of organisms of the domain Eukarya (plants, animals, fungi, and protists). Eukaryotic cells have genetic material enclosed within a membrane-bound nucleus and contain other membrane-bound organelles.
Part of the cytoskeleton of eukaryotic cells that probably functions mainly for support and is composed of several types of proteins
A single DNA double helix together with proteins that help to organize the DNA.
Part of the cytoskeleton of eukaryotic cells that is composed of the proteins actin and (in some cases) myosin; functions in the movement of cell organelles and in locomotion by extension of the plasma membrane.
In animal cells, a short, barrel-shaped ring consisting of nine microtubule triplets; a microtubule-containing structure at the base of each cilium and flagellum
A network of protein fibers in the cytoplasm that gives shape to a cell, holds and moves organelles, and is typically involved in cell movement.
In plant cells, an organelle bounded by two membranes that may be involved in photosynthesis (chloroplasts), pigment storage, or food storage.
A fluid-filled vacuole in certain protists that takes up water from the cytoplasm, contracts, and expels the water outside the cell through a pore in the plasma membrane
The organelle in plants and plantlike protists that is the site of photosynthesis; surrounded by a double membrane and containing an extensive internal membrane system that bears chlorophyll.
The double-membrane system surrounding the nucleus of eukaryotic cells; the outer membrane is typically continuous with the endoplasmic reticulum
The location of the genetic material in prokaryotic cells; not membrane-enclosed.