Abdominal Vascular

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Abdominal Vascular
2012-02-13 17:36:23

Abdominal Vascular
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  1. superior
    closer to patients head
  2. inferior
    closer to patients feet
  3. anterior
    towards the front of patient
  4. posterior
    towards the back of patient
  5. medial
    lying towards midline
  6. lateral
    lying away from midline
  7. prone
    patient lies on front
  8. supine
    patient lies on back
  9. homogeneous
    uniform and smooth
  10. heterogeneous
    nonuniform and not smooth
  11. isoechoic
    same shades of gray
  12. complex
    both solid and cystic components
  13. hypoechoic
    echoes not as bright as surrounding tissues
  14. hyperechoic
    echoes brighter than surrounding tissues
  15. anechoic
    without internal echoes
  16. shadowing
    lacks echoes posterior to a bone or stone
  17. enhancement
    posterior to cystic structures and really bright
  18. Which muscle is bilateral and forms the post. wall of the abdomen posterior to the kidneys?
    quadratus lumborum
  19. Which muscle is triangular, bilateral, and is located alongside the spine and joins the iliacus muscle in the pelvis?
    psoas muscle
  20. Which muscles are bilateral and form the anterior abdominal wall?
    internal and external obliques
  21. The __________is a white line of connective tissue in the median of the abdomen.
    linea alba
  22. Which muscle is bilateral and located lateral to the linea alba?
    rectus abdominis muscle
  23. What encloses the rectus abdominis muscles?
    rectus sheath
  24. Which pelvic cavity is located above the brim of the iliac crests as defined by the iliac crest?
    major or false pelvis
  25. Which pelvic cavity lies within the major pelvis and contained within the iliac crest?
    minor or true pelvis
  26. What is the single layer of mesothelium covering the abdominal organs called?
  27. What are the two layers of peritoneum and what are they separated by?
    visceral and parietal; serous fluid
  28. Organs covered by the peritoneum are called:
  29. Organs which lie posterior to the peritoneum are called:
  30. The __________ extends from the diaphragm to pelvis.
    greater sac
  31. The ___________lies posterior to the stomach.
    lesser sac
  32. Which space is inferior and posterior aspect of the liver and the superior pole of the right kidney?
    subhepatic space or Morison’s pouch
  33. The __________ space is located between the left hemidiaphragm and spleen.
    left subphrenic
  34. Which area is located between right hemidiaphragm and the anterior portion of the liver?
    right subphrenic
  35. Which space is located around the kidney, adrenal gland, and perirenal fat surrounded by Gerota’s fascia?
    perinephric space
  36. Omentum and mesentery are formed by __________.
  37. __________ protects intestines anteriorly and anchors the stomach to other organs.
  38. What anchors the intestines to the post. abdominal wall and also form ligaments?
  39. What attaches to the greater curve of stomach and transverse colon?
    greater omentum
  40. What attaches to the lesser curve of the liver?
    lesser omentum
  41. The _________anchors the stomach to spleen.
    gastrosplenic omentum
  42. Which ligament anchors the liver to the abdominal wall and divides the liver into right and left halves?
    Falciform ligament
  43. What is the free end of falciform ligament called?
    ligamentum teres
  44. The ligamentum teres divides the liver into what?
    Left Lateral & Left Medial
  45. Which ligament divides the caudate and left lobes of the liver? 
ligamentum venosum
  46. Which ligament anchors the stomach to spleen and posterior abdominal wall?
    gastrosplenic ligament
  47. Which ligament anchors kidney to spleen and posterior abdominal wall?
    lienorenal ligament
  48. What are the right and left layers of the falciform ligament called?
    right is coronary ligament and left is left triangular
  49. The anterior pararenal space contains:
    pancreas, ant. visceral branches of AO, retroperitoneal portion of duodenum, and portions of the ascending and descending colon
  50. The perirenal space contains:
    kidneys, adrenal glands
  51. The posterior pararenal space contains:
  52. What are the 3 layers of vessels?
    tunica intima, media, and adventitia
  53. Name 3 characteristics of arteries.
    thicker walls, increased elastin, and thicker media layer
  54. Name 3 characteristics of veins.
    more muscular but overall thinner walls, may have valves, rely on pressure differentials
  55. extravascular
    increase or decrease in vascular bed pressure
  56. intravascular
    increased heart rate or respiratory changes
  57. Name the 4 truths of the AO
    has anterior branches, course posterior to diaphragm, has no posterior vessels, lies on left side of body
  58. Name the 4 truths of the IVC
    has no anterior branches, pierces the diaphragm, RRA runs posterior to IVC, lies on right side of body
  59. Describe proximal AO
    from the diaphragm to celiac axis
  60. Describe mid AO
    along the length of SMA
  61. Describe distal AO
    inferior to the SMA
  62. Name the systemic arteries. AO
    celiac trunk, SMA, renal arteries, IMA, and iliac arteries
  63. Which vessels branch off the celiac?
    HA, SA, left gastric artery, GDA
  64. Which vessels make up the seagull sign?
    HA, SA, and celiac axis
  65. The splenic artery runs __________ in the body and terminates at the __________.
    transverse; splenic hilum
  66. The hepatic artery gives rise to the __________ then enters the liver at the ___________.
    gastroduodenal artery; porta hepatus
  67. Which vessels make a portal triad?
    HA, bile duct, and PV
  68. What are the branches of the AO?
    SMA, IMA, renal and iliac arteries
  69. The second branch of the AO, the SMA is demarcated __________ and courses how?
    mid AO; anteriorly then inferiorly
  70. Where do the renal arteries originate?
    approx. 1 cm inferior to the origin of the SMA
  71. Which renal artery runs posterior to IVC, has a longer course, and enters RK at hilum posterior to RRV?
    right renal artery
  72. Which renal artery has a direct course to LK and enters LK at hilum posterior to LRV?
    left renal artery
  73. Which portion of the AO is the most common site for aneurysms?
    distal AO
  74. The distal AO is __________ to the renal arteries and bifurcates into the __________ at the level of the umbilicus.
    inferior; iliac arteries
  75. Name the systemic veins.
    IVC, HV's, RV's, and iliac veins
  76. The portal venous system includes:
    SMV, SV, IMV, PV
  77. Describe the ultrasound appearance of the AO.
    thick, muscular echogenic walls, and clear internal lumen
  78. Describe the ultrasound appearance of the IVC.
    thin walled tubular structure which change size and shape with respirations, may see RBC's within the lumen
  79. Where does the IVC originate?
    it is formed by the convergence of the 2 common iliac veins which drain the lower extremities and pelvis
  80. The IVC should not exceed ___ cm AP.
  81. Does the IVC move more posterior or anterior as it courses superiorly?
  82. What maneuver or breathing technique will expand the IVC?
  83. How many hepatic veins are there and what are their names?
    3; right, middle, and left
  84. Name the tributaries of the IVC.
    right adrenal vein, right testicular/ovarian vein, inferior phrenic vein, 4 lumbar vein, 2 common iliac vein, medial sacral vein
  85. Name the systemic veins.
    IVC, HV, and RV
  86. Which vessels are in the playboy bunny sign?
    IVC, right, middle, and left hepatic veins
  87. What are some characteristics of hepatic veins?
    thin fairly hypoechoic walls, get larger as they course superiorly, show respiratory changes, can be seen in transverse
  88. The PV is formed by the union of what 2 other viens?
    SMV and SV
  89. What 3rd smaller vein also joins to form the PV?
  90. What supplies 80% of blood to the liver and drains into the IVC directly via HV's?
    main portal vein
  91. Which vessel is the only one to have tissue post and ant to it?
  92. Describe the sonographic appearance of PV's?
    have brightly echogenic walls, get smaller as they move away from the porta hepatus, and no pulsations are seen with doppler
  93. What direction do the following vessels run in the body? SV, SMV, and PV
    transverse; longitudinal; transverse
  94. PV's vs. HV's
    PV's: echogenic walls, larger near porta hepatus, intrasegmental. HV's: hypoechoic walls, larger superiorly, intersegmental
  95. The PV is always ___________.
  96. The hepatic a. traverses the body and is always ___________ and ___________ to bile duct.
    superior; medial
  97. The CBD is __________ to CHD.
  98. What 4 things are posterior to pancreas body?
    SV, SMA, LRV, AO
  99. What 2 things are sup to the pancreas body?
    SA, celiac axis
  100. What is posterior to pancreas head?
  101. What is superior to pancreas head?
    MPV, HA
  102. What is posterior to pancreas neck?
  103. What is anterior to the uncinate process?
  104. ___________ is posterolateral border of pancreatic head.
  105. The GDA is the ___________ border of head.
  106. The ___________ is post border of body and tail.
  107. The SA is the ___________ border of body and tail.
    superior (occasionally travels anteriorly)
  108. The neck and unicate process are divided by what?
    SMV (they are the medial portions of head)
  109. The AO should not exceed ___________ cm AP.