Card Set Information
closer to patients head
closer to patients feet
towards the front of patient
towards the back of patient
lying towards midline
lying away from midline
patient lies on front
patient lies on back
uniform and smooth
nonuniform and not smooth
same shades of gray
both solid and cystic components
echoes not as bright as surrounding tissues
echoes brighter than surrounding tissues
without internal echoes
lacks echoes posterior to a bone or stone
posterior to cystic structures and really bright
Which muscle is bilateral and forms the post. wall of the abdomen posterior to the kidneys?
Which muscle is triangular, bilateral, and is located alongside the spine and joins the iliacus muscle in the pelvis?
Which muscles are bilateral and form the anterior abdominal wall?
internal and external obliques
The __________is a white line of connective tissue in the median of the abdomen.
Which muscle is bilateral and located lateral to the linea alba?
rectus abdominis muscle
What encloses the rectus abdominis muscles?
Which pelvic cavity is located above the brim of the iliac crests as defined by the iliac crest?
major or false pelvis
Which pelvic cavity lies within the major pelvis and contained within the iliac crest?
minor or true pelvis
What is the single layer of mesothelium covering the abdominal organs called?
What are the two layers of peritoneum and what are they separated by?
visceral and parietal; serous fluid
Organs covered by the peritoneum are called:
Organs which lie posterior to the peritoneum are called:
The __________ extends from the diaphragm to pelvis.
The ___________lies posterior to the stomach.
Which space is inferior and posterior aspect of the liver and the superior pole of the right kidney?
subhepatic space or Morison’s pouch
The __________ space is located between the left hemidiaphragm and spleen.
Which area is located between right hemidiaphragm and the anterior portion of the liver?
Which space is located around the kidney, adrenal gland, and perirenal fat surrounded by Gerota’s fascia?
Omentum and mesentery are formed by __________.
__________ protects intestines anteriorly and anchors the stomach to other organs.
What anchors the intestines to the post. abdominal wall and also form ligaments?
What attaches to the greater curve of stomach and transverse colon?
What attaches to the lesser curve of the liver?
The _________anchors the stomach to spleen.
Which ligament anchors the liver to the abdominal wall and divides the liver into right and left halves?
What is the free end of falciform ligament called?
The ligamentum teres divides the liver into what?
Left Lateral & Left Medial
Which ligament divides the caudate and left lobes of the liver? ligamentum venosum
Which ligament anchors the stomach to spleen and posterior abdominal wall?
Which ligament anchors kidney to spleen and posterior abdominal wall?
What are the right and left layers of the falciform ligament called?
right is coronary ligament and left is left triangular
The anterior pararenal space contains:
pancreas, ant. visceral branches of AO, retroperitoneal portion of duodenum, and portions of the ascending and descending colon
The perirenal space contains:
kidneys, adrenal glands
The posterior pararenal space contains:
What are the 3 layers of vessels?
tunica intima, media, and adventitia
Name 3 characteristics of arteries.
thicker walls, increased elastin, and thicker media layer
Name 3 characteristics of veins.
more muscular but overall thinner walls, may have valves, rely on pressure differentials
increase or decrease in vascular bed pressure
increased heart rate or respiratory changes
Name the 4 truths of the AO
has anterior branches, course posterior to diaphragm, has no posterior vessels, lies on left side of body
Name the 4 truths of the IVC
has no anterior branches, pierces the diaphragm, RRA runs posterior to IVC, lies on right side of body
Describe proximal AO
from the diaphragm to celiac axis
Describe mid AO
along the length of SMA
Describe distal AO
inferior to the SMA
Name the systemic arteries. AO
celiac trunk, SMA, renal arteries, IMA, and iliac arteries
Which vessels branch off the celiac?
HA, SA, left gastric artery, GDA
Which vessels make up the seagull sign?
HA, SA, and celiac axis
The splenic artery runs __________ in the body and terminates at the __________.
transverse; splenic hilum
The hepatic artery gives rise to the __________ then enters the liver at the ___________.
gastroduodenal artery; porta hepatus
Which vessels make a portal triad?
HA, bile duct, and PV
What are the branches of the AO?
SMA, IMA, renal and iliac arteries
The second branch of the AO, the SMA is demarcated __________ and courses how?
mid AO; anteriorly then inferiorly
Where do the renal arteries originate?
approx. 1 cm inferior to the origin of the SMA
Which renal artery runs posterior to IVC, has a longer course, and enters RK at hilum posterior to RRV?
right renal artery
Which renal artery has a direct course to LK and enters LK at hilum posterior to LRV?
left renal artery
Which portion of the AO is the most common site for aneurysms?
The distal AO is __________ to the renal arteries and bifurcates into the __________ at the level of the umbilicus.
inferior; iliac arteries
Name the systemic veins.
IVC, HV's, RV's, and iliac veins
The portal venous system includes:
SMV, SV, IMV, PV
Describe the ultrasound appearance of the AO.
thick, muscular echogenic walls, and clear internal lumen
Describe the ultrasound appearance of the IVC.
thin walled tubular structure which change size and shape with respirations, may see RBC's within the lumen
Where does the IVC originate?
it is formed by the convergence of the 2 common iliac veins which drain the lower extremities and pelvis
The IVC should not exceed ___ cm AP.
Does the IVC move more posterior or anterior as it courses superiorly?
What maneuver or breathing technique will expand the IVC?
How many hepatic veins are there and what are their names?
3; right, middle, and left
Name the tributaries of the IVC.
right adrenal vein, right testicular/ovarian vein, inferior phrenic vein, 4 lumbar vein, 2 common iliac vein, medial sacral vein
Name the systemic veins.
IVC, HV, and RV
Which vessels are in the playboy bunny sign?
IVC, right, middle, and left hepatic veins
What are some characteristics of hepatic veins?
thin fairly hypoechoic walls, get larger as they course superiorly, show respiratory changes, can be seen in transverse
The PV is formed by the union of what 2 other viens?
SMV and SV
What 3rd smaller vein also joins to form the PV?
What supplies 80% of blood to the liver and drains into the IVC directly via HV's?
main portal vein
Which vessel is the only one to have tissue post and ant to it?
Describe the sonographic appearance of PV's?
have brightly echogenic walls, get smaller as they move away from the porta hepatus, and no pulsations are seen with doppler
What direction do the following vessels run in the body? SV, SMV, and PV
transverse; longitudinal; transverse
PV's vs. HV's
PV's: echogenic walls, larger near porta hepatus, intrasegmental. HV's: hypoechoic walls, larger superiorly, intersegmental
The PV is always ___________.
The hepatic a. traverses the body and is always ___________ and ___________ to bile duct.
The CBD is __________ to CHD.
What 4 things are posterior to pancreas body?
SV, SMA, LRV, AO
What 2 things are sup to the pancreas body?
SA, celiac axis
What is posterior to pancreas head?
What is superior to pancreas head?
What is posterior to pancreas neck?
What is anterior to the uncinate process?
___________ is posterolateral border of pancreatic head.
The GDA is the ___________ border of head.
The ___________ is post border of body and tail.
The SA is the ___________ border of body and tail.
superior (occasionally travels anteriorly)
The neck and unicate process are divided by what?
SMV (they are the medial portions of head)
The AO should not exceed ___________ cm AP.