HCCC A&P I Test 1

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set_ra
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135037
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HCCC A&P I Test 1
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2012-02-13 21:15:12
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HCCC Test
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Review of A&P I Notes for test 1
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  1. Define Anatomy
    • Derived from the Greek word "to cut up"
    • Studies the structure of body parts and their relationship to one another.
  2. Define Physiology
    Derived from the meaning "to study of nature"

    Concerns the functions of the body.
  3. Define Midsagitial Plane
    Midsagitial passes lenghtwise thru the midplane of the body and divides it into equal right and left havles.
  4. Define Frontal Plane
    The frontal plane passes lengthwise and divides the body into front and back.
  5. Define Horizonal/Transverse Plane
    The Horizonal plane divides the body into superior (upper) and inferior (lower) parts.
  6. Superior/Cranial/Cephalad
    These terms refer to placement of a structure along the long axis of the body.

    Superior structures always appear above other structures.
  7. Inferior/Caudal
    These terms refer to placement of a structure along the long axis of the body.

    Inferior structures are always below other structures.
  8. Anterior\Ventral
    Anterior, in humans is the most forward structure, i.e. the face, chest, abdomen.

    Ventral, in animals means belly.
  9. Posterior/Dorsal
    the backside
  10. Medial
    Toward the middle of the body
  11. Lateral
    Towards the sides of the body
  12. Proximal/distal
    These terms are used primarily to locate various areas of the body limbs. For example the fingers are distal to the elbow; the knee is proximal to the toes.
  13. Anatomical Position
    In the anatomical position the human body is erect, with the feet only slightly apart, head and toes pointed forward, and arms hanging at the sides with palms facing forward.
  14. Superficial (External)
    Deep (Internal)
    • Towards or at the body surface.
    • Away fro the body surface.
  15. Name the Anterior (Ventral) Body Cavities
    • 1. Thoracic cavity
    • 2. Abdominal cavity
    • 3. Pelvic cavity

    Note the Thoracic cavity is separated from the Abdominal-Pelvic by the diaphram.
  16. Name the Posterior (Dorsal) Body Cavities
    • 1. Cranial cavity
    • 2. Spinal (vertebral) cavity
  17. Umbilical Region
    The center most region, which includeds the umbilicus.

    The small intestine is located here.
  18. Epigastric Region
    Immediately superior to the umbilical region.

    Overlies most of the stomach.
  19. Hypogastric (pubic) Region
    Immediately inferior to the umbilical region.

    Encompasses the pubic area.
  20. Lliac (Inguinal) Regions
    Lateral to the hypogastric region and overlying the superior parts of the hip bones.
  21. Lumber (Lateral) Regions
    Between the ribs and the flaring portions of the hip bones; lateral to the umbilical region.
  22. Hypochodriac Regions
    Flanking the epigastric region laterally and overlying the lower ribs.
  23. What is a chemical elements?
    A chemical elements is made up of extremely small units of matter called atoms.

    Atoms ae compose of even smaller particles called Protons, Neutrons, and Electrons.
  24. The Atomic Mass is ...
    The number of Protons and Neutrons in an atom.
  25. The Atomic Number is ...
    The total number of Protons in an atom.
  26. What is a chemical reaction?
    A chemical reaction is atoms either combining or breaking apart from one another.

    Electrons are either shared (covalent) or transferred (ionic) from one atom to another.
  27. What is polar/nonpolar Covalent bond?
    A polar covalent bond is when one atom pulls the electron more than the other atom. i.e. H2O, in which O (oxygen) pulls the electron more to it, than H2 (Dihyrdrate).

    In Nonpolar covalent bonds, the electron is shared equally. i.e. H2.
  28. The major solvent in the body is...
    Water is the major solvent in the body; 65% to 75% of the total body weight.
  29. What is an Acid?
    An acid is any inorganic compound that in an aqueous solution dissociates into H+ (Hydrogen Ions).

    Acids ph is < 7.0

    Remember ph = log 1/H+; an H+ > 7 is acidic.
  30. What is a Base?
    A base is any inorganic compound that in H2O dissociates into OH- (Hydroxyl/Hydroxide Ions)

    Base ph is > 7.0

    Remember ph = log 1/H+; a H+ < 7 is a base.
  31. What is homestatsis?
    The physiological regulation for the maintenance of internal consistency of ph via buffers.

    The main buffers are HCO3 (Bicarbonate ion) and H2CO3 (Carbonic acid).
  32. The major source of energy in the cell is...
    Carbohydrates, which consist of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen.
  33. The types of Carbohydrates are....
    Monosaccharides= glucose & fructose

    Disaccharides = two monos

    Polysaccharides = three or more monos (glycogen & starch)
  34. What are Proteins...
    Large molecules composed of amino acids bonded together by peptide bonds.
  35. Name the structures of a Protein.
    • 1. The sequence of amino acids (AA)
    • 2. Hydrogen bonds between the AA in the polypetide chain
    • 3/4. Polypetide chains bend & fold upon themselves
  36. Lipids are...
    insoluble in H2O & soluable in fat solvents. They form cell membrances, energy sources, vitamins, and hormones.
  37. What is metabolism and name the types.
    Metabolism is the transfer of energy. There are two types: catabolism and anabolism.

    Catabolism release energy by breaking down large molecules. Anabolism uses energy to build complex chemical compounds.
  38. Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) is ...
    the primary source of energy for the cells.
  39. Glycolysis is
    • the pathway by which glucose is converted to 2 molecules of pyruvic acid; either by
    • ANAEROBIC (nonoxygen) = 2 molecules ATP

    AEROBIC (with oxygen) = 38 molecules of ATP
  40. What are Eukariotic and Prokariotic cells?
    Eu (true) kariotic (nuclueus) are all living things; cells with a nucleus.

    Pro (before) kariotic are cells without nucleus, ie bacteria.
  41. The cell membrane is covered by...
    a double layer of phospholipids. The water soluble end facing outward & the fat soluable end facing inward.
  42. Transportion across the cell membrane occurs by...
    passive or active transport. Passive transport, do not require energy and are transport via (1) diffussion, (2) osmosis, or (3) facilitaed diffusion.

    Active transport is done by the sodium potassium pump proteins embedded within the cell membrane.
  43. Ribosomes Organelle is..
    Tiny spherical bodies composed of RNA and protein; actual sites of protein synthesis; floating free or attached to membranous structure (the rough ER) in the cytoplasm.
  44. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is
    membranous system of tubles that extends throughout the cytoplasm: two varieties rough and smooth.

    • Rough is were storage & transport of proteins
    • Smooth is were lipid sysnthesis & metabolism, and drug detoxification occur.
  45. Golgi apparatus
    Stack of flattened sacs with bulbous ends and associated small vesicles; plays a role in packagin proteins or other substances for export from the cell or incorporation into the plasma membrance and in packaging lysosomal enzymes.
  46. Lysosomes
    Various-sized membranous sacs containing digestive enzymes; eat worn-out organelles and foreign substances; have the capacity of total cell destruction if ruptured.

    Think Deathstar in Star Wars..lol
  47. Peroxisomes
    Small lysosome-like membranous sacs...that detoxify alcohol, hydrogen peroxide, and other harmful chemicals.
  48. Mitochondria
    Generally rod-shaped bodies with a double-membrane wall; inner membrane is thrown into folds, or cristae; contains enzymes that oxidize foodstuffs to produce cellular energy (ATP); the powerhouse of the cell.
  49. Centrioles
    Paired, cylindrical bodies lie at right angles to each other, close to the nucleus; direct the formation of the mitotic spndle during cell division; form the bases of cilia and flagella.
  50. Cytoskeletal Elements
    Microfilaments; intermediate filaments, and microtubles.

    Provide celluar support; function in intracelluar transport; microfilaments are formed of actin, a contractile protein.
  51. What is cytoplasm
    is everything between the plasma membrane & region of DNA. It consists of a semi-fluid matrix & other componets such as ribosomes.
  52. Chromatin
    is the cell's collection of DNA together with all of its assocated proteins.
  53. DNA is composed of the following nucletides formation...
    A-T and G-C
  54. RNA is composed of the following nucletides formation...
    A-U and G-C
  55. How many types of RNA are there?
    Three: messenger, Transport, and Ribosome

    mRNA, tRNA, and rRNA

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