Pathology

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Author:
bridgetstadum
ID:
135063
Filename:
Pathology
Updated:
2012-02-13 19:39:11
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Pathology Test
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Description:
Pathology Test 2
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  1. Edema
    Abnormal accumulation of fluid in tissues or body cavities
  2. Old antiquated term for edema
    Dropsy
  3. Severe generalized edema in subcutaneous tissues
    Anasarca
  4. Ascites
    Accumulation of free serous fluid in abdominal cavity
  5. Abnormal accumulation of fluid in thoracic cavity
    Hydrothorax
  6. Hydropericardium
    Abnormal accumulation of fluid within pericardialsac
  7. Hyperemia
    Excess blood in area of body
  8. Reduction in arterial blood supply
    Ischemia
  9. Thrombosis
    Formation or presence of attached clot
  10. Factors that might predispose someone to a thrombosis
    • Injuries to blood vessels
    • Slow rate of blood flow
    • Alterations in blood composition
  11. Difference between thrombosis and embolism
    • Thrombosis = attached
    • Embolism = free floating
  12. Condition resulted from embolism
    Vessel obstruction
  13. Ischemia
  14. Ischemic necrosis + putrefaction =
    Gangrene
  15. Infarction
    Formation of area of necrosis in tissue caused by obstruction in artery supplying area
  16. Hemorrhage
    Escape of BLOOD from vascular system
  17. Types of embolisms
    • Fragment of thrombi
    • Bacteria
    • Tumor cells
    • Animal parasites
    • Fat
    • Air or gas (Caisson)
    • Foreign bodies
  18. Causes of hemorrhage
    • Trauma
    • Diseases of blood vessels
    • Hypertension
    • Spread of infection
    • Spread of tumors
  19. Petechial
    Antemortem, pinpoint, extravascular blood discoloration visible as purplish hemorrhages of skin
  20. Ecchymoses
    • Small non-elevated hemorrhagic patch
    • Extravasation of blood into tissue
    • Bruise
  21. Consequences of embolism
    • Ischemia
    • Infarction or gangrene
    • Spread of infection
    • Spread of tumors
  22. Hematoma
    • Localized collection of blood in subcutaneous tissue
    • Blood filled swelling
  23. Epistaxis
    Nose bleed
  24. Hemoptysis
    • Coughing up blood
    • Blood in sputum from lungs
  25. Hematemesis
    Vomiting blood due to gastric ulcer or bleeding esophageal varices
  26. Melena
    Blood in stool
  27. Hematuria
    Discharge of RBC's in urine
  28. Circulatory shock
    Organs and tissues are not receiving adequate flow of blood
  29. Conditions after death resulting from hemorrhage
    • Tardieu spots
    • Petechiae and purpuric
  30. Neoplasm
    • New growth of abnormal cells of autonomous nature
    • Abnormal, excessive and uncontrolled multiplication of cells with formation of mass or new growth of tissues
  31. Characteristics of benign neoplasms
    • Grow by expansion
    • Do not migrate
    • Do not return after removal
    • Do not cause extensive tissue damage or whole body changes
    • Resemble tissue of organ
    • Not fatal
  32. Characteristics of malignant neoplasms
    • Grow by infiltration
    • Metastaize (migrate) creating secondary foci
    • Can reoccur after removal
    • Cause extensive tissue damage
    • Cause total body changes
    • Does not resemble tissue surrounding it
    • Lethal unless treated
  33. Benign neoplasms of epithelial tissue
    • Adenoma
    • Papilloma
    • Nevus
    • Polyp
  34. Benign neoplasms of connective tissue
    • Osteoma
    • Chondroma
    • Lipoma
    • Angioma
    • Fibroma
  35. Benign tumor of smooth muscle tissue
    Leiomyoma
  36. Benign tumor of striated muscle tissue
    Rhabdomyoma
  37. Begign tumor of nervous tissue
  38. Malignant neoplasms of epithelial tissue
    • Melanoma
    • Squamous
    • Adenocarcinoma
    • Transitional
    • Basal
  39. Malignant neoplasms of connective tissue
    • Osteosarcoma
    • Chondrosarcoma
    • Liposarcoma
    • Angiosarcoma
    • Lymphoma
    • Fibrosarcoma
  40. Malignant tumor of striated muscle tissue
    Rhabdomyosarcoma
  41. Malignant tumor of smooth muscle tissue
    Leiomyosarcoma
  42. Malignant tumor of nervous tissue
    Glioma
  43. Exceptions to the "-oma" rule
  44. Conditions after death associated with malignant neoplasms
    • Emaciation
    • Discoloration
    • Hemorrgahe
    • Tissue deformation
    • Extravascular obstruction
  45. Cachexia
    • Severe form of malnutrition
    • Wasting syndrome
    • Loss of weight, muscle atrophy, fatigue, loss of appetite
    • Physical wasting
  46. Cyst
    • Closed sac or pouch, definite wall
    • Contains fluid, semifluid, or solid material
    • Sac within or on body containing air or fluid
    • Common on skin or ovaries, under skin (subaceous)
  47. Nevus
    • Pigmented lesions of skin (birthmarks, moles)
    • Usually benign
  48. Hypertrophy
    Enlargement of organ or part due to increase in size of cells composing it
  49. Hypoplasia
    Underdevelopment of tissue organ or body
  50. Hyperplasia
    Increased size of organ or part due to excessive but regulated increase in number of its cells
  51. Metaplasia
    Replacement of one type of tissue into form that is not normally found there
  52. Leukocytosis
    Increase in number of WBC's
  53. Decreased amount of WBC's
    Leukocytosis
  54. Abnormal reduction of RBC's
    Anemia
  55. Difference between primary anemia and secondary anemia
  56. Disease characterized by high number of immature abnormal WBC's
    Acute leukemia
  57. Leukemia is cancer of the
  58. Tumor composed of blood and lymph vessels
  59. Increase in total RBC mass
    Polycythemia vera or Erythrocytosis
  60. Purpura
    • Spontaneous bleeding occurs in subcutaneous tissues causing appearance of purple patches on skin
    • Destruction of platelets resulting in skin bruising
  61. Hemophilia
    Inherited hemorrhage disease characterized by tendency to excessive and sometimes spontaneous bleeding
  62. Thrombocytopenia
    Deficience of platelets in blood

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