Card Set Information
What two things classify neoplasms as cancer?
Loss of differentation (no resemblance to original tissue)
Independence of normal cellular growth controls
What do well differentiated cells look like?
Their cell of origin.
What do undifferentiated cells look like?
Different than their cell of origin.
Are benign tumor cells usually encapsulated or not? What about malignant?
Benign are usually encapsulated, malignant are usually not.
Is a differentiated tumor or undifferentiated tumor harder to treat?
Differentiated, because the cells are so similar to the normal cell; harder to target.
Describe three cellular an nuclear changes of a malignant cell.
Loss of contact inhibition (they keep growing even when they touch another cell
high mitotic index (growth rate)
Describe the invasiveness of a cancer cell? Describe the metastasis of a cancer cell.
Invasiveness is invading something SOLID like tissue or an organ.
Metastasis is when it travels through the blood stream or lymph system
If a word ends in -oma, what is it?
-oma is a benign epthelial or C.T. tumor
If a word ends in -sarcoma, what is it?
A malignant connective tissue tumor
If a word ends in -carcinoma what is it?
A malignant epithelial tumor. Ex; squamous cell carcinoma
If a word ends in -myoma, what is it?
A benign muscle tumor
If a word ends in -myosarcoma, what is it?
A malignant muscle cell tumor
What two words are associated with malignant hematologic tumors?
leukemia and lymphoma
What does beta-human chorionic gonadotropin test for?
germ cell cancers (think "gonad")
What three tumor markers test for lung cancer?
CEA- carcinoembryonic antigen
What does alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) test for?
liver, ovary, testis
What does ACTH test for?
lung and pituitary gland cancers
What are the first, second, and third most common cancers for women; which kills the most women?
2. Lung (biggest killer)
What are the first, second, and third most common cancers for men, which kills the most men?
2. Lung (biggest killer)
What is the main underlying cause of cancer development?
What is cancer growth and development called?
Describe three alteration of oncogenesis.
oncogenes (stimulate cancer cell growth)
absence of anitoncogenes (should have two)
absence of apoptosis regulating genes (allows damaged cells to continue to proliferate)
What is sustained angiogenesis?
Tumors need continued nutrients so they grow their own blood vessels
Describe the immortality of cancer cells.
Cancer cells produce telomerase to repair the telomeres. The telemers get shortened each time a cell replicates, since the cancer cells telemere gets repaired it never gets the death signal.
What is paraneoplastic and what is an example?
Paraneoplastic is an effect of cancer that we cannot directly relate back to the cancer, but we are pretty sure it is related to it. Cachexia is general wasting.
What does CAUTION stand for as far as warning signs for cancer (must know word for word)
C = Change in bowel or bladder habits
A = A sore that does not heal
U = Unusual bleeding or discharge
T = Thickening or lump in breast or elsewhere
I = Indigestion or difficulty swallowing
O = Obvious change in wart or mole
N = Nagging cough or hoarseness