Anatomy2 Exam 1

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kworhach22
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135095
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Anatomy2 Exam 1
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2012-02-13 22:03:30
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Anatomy2 Exam
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Anatomy2 Exam 1
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  1. “fight or flight response” = up regulate
    sympathetic division
  2. resting and digesting = down regulating
    parasympathetic
  3. SNS (somatic)
    neurons:
    ganglia:
    neurotransmitter:
    organ stimulation
    • Neurons always stimulatory
    • ganglia absent
    • neurotrasmitter is ACH
    • organ stimulation is voluntary
  4. ANS (autonomic)
    neurons:
    ganglia:
    neurotransmitter:
    orgain stimulation:
    • neurons stimulatory & inhibitory
    • ganglia present
    • neurotransmitter ach & epinepherine
    • organ stimulation is involuntary
  5. receptors that bind ACH
    cholinergic
  6. types of cholinergic receptors
    • nicotinic
    • muscarinic
    • adrenergic
  7. located in postganglionic neurons, adrenal medulla cells, skeletal muscle cells
    nicotinic receptors
  8. receptors that are ALWAYS stimulatory & upregulate
    nicotinic receptors
  9. receptors located in all parasympathetic target organs, select sympathetic organs (sweat glands and blood vessels in skeletal muscles)
    muscarinic receptors
  10. receptors that have either a inhibitory or stimulatory effect and can either up regulate or down regulate
    muscarinic receptors
  11. receptors that bind nerepinepherine and recognize adrenaline
    adrenergic receptors
  12. two classes of adrenergic receptors
    • alpha (generally stimulatory)
    • beta (generally inhibitory)
  13. intracellular fluid
    cytoplasm
  14. extracellular fluid
    plasma
  15. intercellular fluid
    between cells
  16. diffusion of water across a membrane from high concentration to low concentration
    osmosis
  17. water follows (lower # flows to larger #)
    salt
  18. autonomic nervous system has only what type of neurons?
    Motor
  19. sympathetic of digestive system
    down regulates
  20. parasympathetic of digestive system
    up regulates
  21. a group of cell bodies, tells you where one neuron stops and another begins
    ganglia
  22. preganglionic neurons are:
    • short in the sympathetic
    • long in the parasympathetic
  23. postganglionic neurons are:
    • long in the sympathetic
    • short in the parasympathetic
  24. nuerons off of the cranial, S2 and S4
    parasympathetic
  25. ganglia are close to the organ
    parasympathetic
  26. neurons come off T1-L2
    sympathetic
  27. ganglia are far form the organ
    sympathetic
  28. preganglionic nerves are:
    cholinergic
  29. postganglionic neurons of parasympathetic are:
    cholinergic
  30. postganglionic neurons of sympathetic are:
    adrenergic
  31. electrochemical impulses regulate muscles and glands
    quick response
    nervous system
  32. influences metabolism via chemical messages
    prolonged response
    endocrine system
  33. "within" released inside blood
    endocrine
  34. gland secreted outside of body or into a body cavity
    exocrine
  35. derived from fat -->cholesterol
    gonads, adrenal glands
    steroidal hormones
  36. derived from proteins
    work by a secondary messenger system (Cyclic AMP & PIP)
    amino acid based hormones
  37. hormones travel:
    in blood free or bound to protein carriers
  38. body gets rid of hormones how?
    • degraded by target organs (don't last long)
    • removed by:
    • kidneys- can make you pee some of it out
    • and liver- traps it and breaks it down
  39. half life of hormones
    • when hormone concentration gets to 50% of its maximum concentration
    • could be seconds to 30 minutes
  40. type of hormone release: change in ionic concentration or nutrient (needs more of something)
    humoral
  41. type of hormone release that comes from a neuron
    neural
  42. most common type of hormone release
    hormonal
  43. Growth hormone
    • site of release: anterior pituitary (anterior lobe)
    • target organs: all body organs esp. bone and skeletal musc.
    • stimulation: low levels in primarily adolescense
    • Feedback mechanism: high levels of gh, hyperglycemia, obesity
  44. thyroid hormone
    • hypothalamus releases thyroid releasing hormone
    • to pituitary which releases thyroid stimulating hormone
    • to thyroid gland which releases T3 &T4 (thyroid hormone)
  45. thyroid hormone
    • stimulation: falling levels of t3 and t4
    • ********
  46. parathyroid hormone
    • site of release: parathyroid glands
    • target organ: bone, intestine, kidneys
    • stimulation: falling Ca++ blood levels
    • Feedback mechanism: increase in Ca++ blood levels
    • (turn it off)
  47. needed for nerve impulses, muscle contraction and blood clotting
    calcium
  48. targest osteoclasts (bone destroyers) makes them work more
    PTH
  49. hormone only important in children
    calcitonin
  50. adrenocorticotrpic hormone
    • site of release: anterior pituitary
    • target organ: adrenal cortex
    • stimulation: stress
    • feedback mech: increased levels of blood glucocorticoids
  51. series of hormones released to adrenal cortex
    alucocorticoids
  52. breaks down protein and certain fats and turns them into glucose (adrenocorticotropic hormone)
    cortisol
  53. adrenal gland hormones:
    • mineralocorticoids
    • epinephrine and norepinephrine
  54. mineralocorticoids
    • site of release: adrenal cortex
    • target organ: kidneys
    • stimulation: decrease in blood volume, pressure, Na+ level
    • feedback: increase in ""
  55. tiny tubes in kidney that filter plasma of blood but also reabsorp ions so Na+ goes back into blood
    nephrons
  56. epinephrine and norepinephrine
    • site of release: adrenal medulla
    • target organ: heart, vasculature, bronchioles
    • stimulation: sympathetic nerous system
    • feedback: NONE. SNS stimulation decreases when needed
  57. arginine vasopressin (antidiuretic hormone - ADH)
    • regulates amount of water in your blood
    • site of releasse: posterior pituitary
    • target organ: kidney- causes it to reduce amount of water you secrete

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