Bio Sat2 ch4

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Bio Sat2 ch4
2012-02-13 22:10:14
BIo Sat ch4

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  1. Genetic information
    Basically just DNA
  2. Chromosome
    The pieces of DNA in the nucleus of a cell.
  3. Replicate
    • MAking an exact copy of itself
    • (DNA replicates)
  4. DNA polymerase
    An enzyme that forms new strands of DNA.
  5. Template
    • Something that directs the construction of something else.
    • A DNA strand acts a template for the formation of a new complementary strand.
  6. Somatic
    Non-sex body cell
  7. Homologous
    One Chromosome of a pair in the body.
  8. Holologous pair
    • The two chromosomes that make up a pair.
    • a.k.a. 1a from dad 2a from mom.
  9. Diploid
    • Cells that have two sets of chromosomes.
    • ie. humans.
  10. Genes
    The portions of DNA that carry code for protein synthesis.
  11. Ribose
    The sugar in RNA
  12. Uracil
    The nitrogen base in RNA as opposed to thymine in DNA.
  13. Single-stranded
    • On strand of nitrogen bases
    • RNA is single-stranded
  14. Transcription
    Forming new RNA from DNA.
  15. Translation
    • RNA produces new proteins.
    • Nucleotides -----> Amino Acids
  16. RNA polymerase
    THe enzyme from DNA that creates a new RNA,
  17. mRNA
    • Messenger RNA.
    • Carries information for protein synthesis,
    • in the form of a nucleotide sequence.
  18. rRNA
    • Ribosomal RNA.
    • Interacts with the cell's ribosomes to make them functional.
    • rRNA is the catalyst for protein synthesis;
    • if there's no rRNA the the ribosomes don't work.
  19. tRNA
    • Transfer RNA.
    • Carries amino acids from the cytoplasm to the ribosomes during protein synthesis.
  20. Codon
    • A sequence of three amino acids.
    • ex. AUG
  21. Genetic Code
    • The dictionary for protein translation:
    • AUG--methionine
    • CUU--leucine
  22. Non-overlapping sequence
    • A sequence read without repeating.
    • Ex. AUGGCACGA:
  23. anticodon
    • A special region on the tRNA that can base pair with the codons on mRNA.
    • The anticodon must be complementary to base pair.
  24. Anticodon loop
    THe area on the tRNA where the anticodons are.
  25. Ribosome
    • The organelle that synthesizes protein.
    • mRNA binds to the ribosomes, and tRNA carries amino acids to it.
    • The ribosome has a A-site (Amino)
    • and a P-site (Peptide).
  26. Peptide
    Growing peptide is attached to the ribosome at the P-site.
  27. Amino Acid
    The next Amino acid is continually added to the A-site.