Gluteal Region/Thigh

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Author:
Omidancer1
ID:
135122
Filename:
Gluteal Region/Thigh
Updated:
2012-03-13 16:47:21
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Gluteal Region Thigh
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Gluteal Region/Thigh
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  1. Adductor Canal
    • Narrow passageway in middle third of thigh
    • Extends from apex of femoral triangle down to the adductor hiatus in the tendon of the adductor magnus
    • Bounded: Anteriorly and laterally by vastus medialis; Posteriorly by adductors longus and magnus; medially by sartorius
    • Carries: femoral artery and vein, saphenous nerve, and nerve to vastus medialis
  2. Adductor Hiatus
    • An opening between the aponeurotic distal attachment of the adductor part of the adductor magnus and the tendinous distal attachment of the hamstring part
    • Transmits femoral a. and v. from adductor canal into popliteal fossa
  3. Femoral Triangle
    • Bounded superiorly by the inguinal ligament (forms base)
    • Bounded inferomedially by the lateral border of the adductor longus
    • Bounded inferolaterally by the sartorius
    • Contains (lateral to medial): NAVEL
    • -femoral Nerve
    • -femoral Artery
    • -femoral Vein
    • -Empty space
    • -Lymph nodes
  4. Rectus Femoris
    • Proximal Attachment: AIIS and ilium superior to acetabulum
    • Distal Attachment: Via quadriceps tendon and independent attachments to base of patella; indirectly via patellar ligament to tibial tuberosity
    • Innervation: Femoral n. (L2, L3, L4)
    • Main Actions: Extend leg at knee joint; steadies hip joint and helps iliopsoas flex thigh
  5. Vastus Lateralis
    • Proximal Attachment: Greater trochanter and lateral lip of linea aspera of femur
    • Distal Attachment: Via quadriceps tendon and independent attachments to base of patella; indirectly via patellar ligament to tibial tuberosity; tibia and patella via aponeuroses (lateral patella retinacula)
    • Innervation: Femoral n. (L2, L3, L4)
    • Main Actions: Extend leg at knee joint
  6. Vastus Medialis
    • Proximal Attachment: Intertrochanteric line and medial lip of linea aspera of femur
    • Distal Attachment: Via quadriceps tendon and independent attachments to base of patella; indirectly via patellar ligament to tibial tuberosity; tibia and patella via aponeuroses (medial patella retinacula)
    • Innervation: Femoral n. (L2, L3, L4)
    • Main Actions: Extend leg at knee joint; VMO moves patella medially
  7. Vastus Intermedius
    • Proximal Attachment: Anterior and lateral surfaces of shaft of femur
    • Distal Attachment: Via quadriceps tendon and independent attachments to base of patella; indirectly via patellar ligament to tibial tuberosity
    • Innervation: Femoral n. (L2, L3, L4)
    • Main Actions: Extend leg at knee joint
  8. Sartorius
    • Proximal Attachment: ASIS and superior part of notch inferior to it
    • Distal Attachment: Superior part of medial surface of tibia
    • Innervation: Femoral n. (L2, L3)
    • Main Actions: Flexes, ABducts, and laterally rotates thigh at hip joint; flexes leg at knee joint, (medially rotating leg when knee is flexed)
  9. Pectineus
    • Proximal Attachment: Superior ramus of pubis
    • Distal Attachment: Pectineal line of femur just inferior to lesser trochanter
    • Innervation: Femoral n. (L2, L3), may receive branch of obturator nerve
    • Main Actions: ADducts and flexes thigh; assists with medial rotation of thigh
  10. Gracilis
    • Proximal Attachment: Body and inferior ramus of pubis
    • Distal Attachment: Superior part of medial surface of tibia
    • Innervation: Obturator n. (L2, L3)
    • Main Actions: ADducts thigh; flexes leg; helps rotate leg medially
  11. Adductor Longus
    • Proximal Attachment: Body of pubis inferior to pubic crest
    • Distal Attachment: Middle third of linea aspera of femur
    • Innervation: Obturator n., branch of anterior division (L2, L3, L4)
    • Main Actions: ADducts thigh
  12. Adductor Brevis
    • Proximal Attachment: Body and inferior ramus of pubis
    • Distal Attachment: Pectineal line and proximal part of linea aspera of femur
    • Innervation: Obturator n., branch of anterior division (L2, L3, L4)
    • Main Actions: ADducts thigh; to some extent flexes it
  13. Adductor Magnus
    • Proximal Attachment: Adductor part: inferior ramus of pubis, ramus of ischium. Hamstring part: ischial tuberosity
    • Distal Attachment: Adductor part: gluteal tuberosity, linea aspera, medial supracondylar line. Hamstring part: adductor tubercle of femur
    • Innervation: Adductor part: obturator n. (L2, L3, L4), branches of posterior division. Hamstring part: tibial part of sciatic n. (L4)
    • Main Actions: ADducts thigh. Adductor part: flexes thigh. Hamstring part: extends thigh
  14. Tensor Fascia Latae
    • Proximal Attachment: ASIS; anterior part of iliac crest
    • Distal Attachment: IT band which attaches to the lateral condyle of tibia (Gerdy's tubercle)
    • Innervation: Superior gluteal n. (L4-S1)
    • Main Actions: ABduct and medially rotate thigh; weakly flexes thigh; keep pelvis level when ipsilateral limb is weight-bearing and advance opposite (unsupported) side during its swing phase
  15. Gluteus Maximus
    • Proximal Attachment: Ilium posterior to posterior gluteal line (PSIS); dorsal surface of sacrum and coccyx; sacrotuberous ligament
    • Distal Attachment: Most fibers insert into IT band which inserts on the lateral condyle of tibia; some fibers insert on gluteal tuberosity
    • Innervation: Inferior gluteal n. (L5, S1, S2)
    • Main Actions: Extends thigh (especially from flexed position) and assists in lateral rotation; steadies thigh and assists in rising from sitting position
  16. Gluteus Medius
    • Proximal Attachment: External surface of ilium between anterior and posterior gluteal lines
    • Distal Attachment: Lateral surface of greater trochanter of femur
    • Innervation: Superior gluteal n. (L5, S1)
    • Main Actions: ABduct and medially rotate extended thigh; externally rotates flexed thigh; keep pelvis level when ipsilateral limb is weight-bearing and advance opposite (unsupported) side during its swing phase
  17. Gluteus Minimus
    • Proximal Attachment: External surface of ilium between anterior and inferior gluteal lines
    • Distal Attachment: Anterior surface of greater trochanter of femur
    • Innervation: Superior gluteal n. (L5, S1)
    • Main Actions: ABduct and medially rotate extended thigh; externally rotates flexed thigh; keep pelvis level when ipsilateral limb is weight-bearing and advance opposite (unsupported) side during its swing phase
  18. Piriformis
    • Proximal Attachment: Anterior surface of sacrum; sacrotuberous ligament
    • Distal Attachment: Superior border of greater trochanter of femur
    • Innervation: Branches of anterior rami of S1, S2
    • Main Actions: Laterally rotate extended thigh and ABduct flexed thigh; steady femoral head in acetabulum
  19. Gemellus Superior
    • Proximal Attachment: Ischial spine
    • Distal Attachment: Medial surface of of greater trochanter of femur
    • Innervation: Nerve to obturator internus (L5, S2)
    • Main Actions: Laterally rotate extended thigh and ABduct flexed thigh; steady femoral head in acetabulum
  20. Inferior Gemellus
    • Prxoimal Attachment: Ischial tuberosity
    • Distal Attachment: Medial surface of greater trochanter of femur
    • Innervation: Nerve to quadratus femoris (L4, L5, S1)
    • Main Actions: Laterally rotate extended thigh and ABduct flexed thigh; steady femoral head in acetabulum
  21. Obturator Internus
    • Proximal Attachment: Pelvic surface of obturator membrane and surrounding bones
    • Distal attachment: Medial surace of greater trochanter of femur
    • Innervations: Nerve to obturator internus (L5-S2)
    • Main Actions: Laterally rotate extended thigh and ABduct flexed thigh; steady femoral head in acetabulum
  22. Obturator Externus
    • Proximal Attachment: External margins of obturator foramen and obturator membrane
    • Distal Attachment: Trochanteric fossa of femur
    • Innervation: Obturator n. (L3, L4)
    • Main Actions: Laterally rotates and ADducts thigh; steadies head of femur in acetabulum
  23. Quadratus Femoris
    • Proximal Attachment: Lateral border of ischial tuberosity
    • Distal Attachment: Quadrate tubercle on intertrochanteric crest of femur and area inferior to it
    • Innervation: Nerver to quadratus femoris (L4, S1)
    • Main Actions: Laterally rotates thigh; steadies femoral head in acetabulum
  24. Semimembranosus
    • Proximal Attachment: Ischial tuberosity
    • Distal Attachment: Posterior part of medial condyle of tibia; reflected attachment forms oblique popliteal ligament (to lateral femoral condyle)
    • Innervation: Tibial division of sciatic nerve (L5, S1, S2)
    • Main Actions: Extend thigh; flex leg and rotate it medially when knee is flexed; when thigh and leg are flexed, can extend trunk
  25. Semitendinosus
    • Proximal Attachment: Ischial tuberosity
    • Distal Attachment: Medial surface of superior part of tibia
    • Innervation: Tibial division of sciatic nerve (L5, S1, S2)
    • Main Actions: Extend thigh; flex leg and rotate it medially when knee is flexed; when thigh and leg are flexed, can extend trunk
  26. Biceps Femoris
    • Proximal Attachment: Long head: Ischial tuberosity. Short head: Lateral lip of linea aspera and lateral supracondylar line of femur
    • Distal Attachment: Lateral side of head of fibula; tendon is split at this site by fibular colateral ligament of knee
    • Innervation: Long head: tibial division of sciatic nerve (L5, S1, S2). Short head: Common fibular division of sciatic nerve (L5, S1, S2)
    • Main Actions: Flexes leg and rotates is laterally when knee is flexed; extends thigh
  27. Hip Flexors
    • Iliopsoas
    • Sartorius
    • Tensor Fasciae Latae
    • Rectus Femoris
    • Pectinues
    • Adductor Longus
    • Adductor Brevis
    • Adductor Magnus - anterior to part
    • Gracilis
  28. Hip Extensors
    • Semitendinosus
    • Semimembranosus
    • Biceps Femoris - Long head
    • Adductor Magnus - posterior part
    • Gluteus Maximus
  29. Hip ABductors
    • Gluteus Medius
    • Gluteus Minimus
    • Tensor Fasciae Latae
  30. Hip ADductors
    • Adductor Longus
    • Adductor Brevis
    • Adductor Magnus
    • Pectineus
    • Gracilis
    • Obturator Externus
  31. Hip External Rotators
    • Piriformis
    • Superior Gemellus
    • Obturator Internus
    • Inferior Gemellus
    • Obturator Externus
    • Quadratus Femoris
    • Gluteus Maximus

    (P GO GO Q Glut Max)
  32. Hip Internal Rotators
    • Gluteus Medius - anterior part
    • Gluteus Minimus - anterior part
    • Tensor Fasciae Latae
  33. Great Saphenous v.
    • Goes from dorsum of foot, wraps up behind knee, and then follows sartorius up to femoral triangle where it goes through the saphenous opening (in fascia) and into femoral v.
    • Drains: anything superficial in area
  34. Lesser/small Saphenous v.
    Comes up posterolateral side of lower leg, between heads of gastrocnemeus, and into back of knee to join popliteal v.
  35. Saphenous n.
    • Roots: Femoral n. from lumbar plexus (L3, L4)
    • Innervates: skin of medial lower leg and foot
  36. Popliteal Fossa
    Contains: popliteal a. (genicular branches); popliteal v.; small saphenous v.; sciatic n. (tibial n., common peroneal n. and sural n.)
  37. Posterior femoral cutaneous n.
    • Roots: Sacral plexus (S1, S2, S3)
    • Innervates: skin of posterior thigh and skin over popliteal fossa
  38. Sural nerve
    • Roots: Tibial and common peroneal nn. (S1, S2)
    • Innervates: skin of posterior lateral leg and lateral margin of foot
  39. Sciatic n.
    • Roots: sacral plexus (L4-S3)
    • Innervates: muscles of poterior compartment of thigh
  40. Superior gluteal n.
    • Roots: Sacral plexus (L4-S1)
    • Innervates: gluteus medius, gluteus minimus, TFL
  41. Inferior gluteal n.
    • Roots: Sacral plexus (L5-S2)
    • Innervates: gluteus maximus
  42. Nerve to quadratus femoris
    • Roots: Sacral plexus (L4-S1)
    • Innervates: hip joint, inferior gemellus, quadratus femoris
  43. Pudendal n.
    • Roots: Sacral plexus (S2-S4)
    • Innervates: perineum
  44. Nerve to obturator internus
    • Roots: Sacral plexus (L5-S2)
    • Innervates: superior gemellus, obturator internus

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