Test 2

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Author:
ambersmith14322
ID:
135128
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Test 2
Updated:
2012-02-14 00:55:24
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energy life
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energy, diffusion, osmosis
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  1. the capacity to do work
    energy
  2. the total amount of energy in an object is:
    the sum of energys 2 forms: potential and kinetic
  3. stored energy that may perform work as a result of its location or arrangement
    potential energy
  4. energy that is used to do work
    kinetic energy
  5. amount of energy thats required to raise the temp of one gram of water from 14.5 C to 15.5 C
    calorie
  6. study of energy transformations that occur in a collection of matter
    thermodynamics
  7. a measure of disorder or randomness. In general, the more disorted a system is, the higher this is
    entropy
  8. State the first law of thermodynamics:
    total maount of energy in a universe that is constant. It cannot be destroyed nor created only moved.
  9. State the 2nd law of thermodynamics:
    disorder increases. Cannot be changed from one form to another without the lo9ss of energy (heat)
  10. Life remains ordered and complex because the ____ is constantly supplying energy to Earth.
    Sun
  11. reaction that reuired an input of energy to proceed
    endergonic
  12. reaction that releases energy
    exergonic
  13. the products contain less energy than reactants
    exergonic
  14. the products contain more energy than the reactants
    endergonic
  15. Photosynthesis is an example of a ______ reaction
    endergonic
  16. Respiration is an example of a _____ reaction
    exergonic
  17. Chemical reactions can proceed in ____ directions
    both
  18. At chemical equilibrium, their_______ of products and reactants are _____.
    • rates of formation
    • equal
  19. in oxidation-reduction reactions energized ____ are transferred from one molecule to another
    electrons
  20. oxidations means the ____ of electrons; these reactions are ______ (they release energy)
    • loss
    • exergonic
  21. reduction means a ____ of electrons; these reactions are _____ (they require energy)
    • gain
    • endergonic
  22. odixdation and reduction always occur _____.
    at the same time
  23. which two cellular processes use electron transport chains?
    photosynthesis and respiration
  24. what are the components of an adenosine triphosphate (ATP) molecule?
    nitrogen containing base-adinine, five carbone sugar ribose, and three phosphate groups
  25. when does ATP release energy
    when the covalent bonds between the phosphates break
  26. similtaneuous reactions in which one provides the energy that drives the other
    coupled reactions
  27. a cell uses ATP as an energy source by ______ (transferring its phosphate group to) another molecule
    phosphorylating
  28. what are two things that could happen when a phosphate is added to a molecule?
    • it may energize the target molecule making it more likely to bond with other molecules
    • -or-
    • it may cause a change in the shape of the target molecule
  29. two exmples of cellular "jobs" that use ATP
    • transporting cells across cell membranes
    • moving chromosomes during cell division
  30. ATP's high energy ______ bonds make the molecule too ____ for long term storage
    • phosphate
    • unstable
  31. cells constatly recycle ____ by adding phosphate groups to ADP
    ATP
  32. an organic molecule that catalyzes (speeds up) a chemical reaction without being consumed
    enzyme
  33. how do enzymes speed up reactions
    by lowering the energy of activation
  34. one enzyme can catalyze ____ or _____ chemical reactions
    • one
    • a few
  35. the region where the substrates bond
    the active site
  36. ______ fit like puzzle pieces into the active site
    substrates
  37. once the reaction occurs at the active site the enzyme releases _____
    products
  38. the reaction at the active site does not ____ nor _____ the enzyme after the protein releases
    • consume
    • alter
  39. the active site of the enzyme after a reaction occurs is ____ and _____ to pick up more substrate
    • empty
    • ready
  40. substances that must be present for an enzyme to catalyze a chemical reaction
    cofactor
  41. name an example of a cofactor
  42. metals such as zinc, iorn, and copper
  43. an organic cofactor. produced by the cell using water-soluble vitamins
    coenzyme
  44. name an example of a coenzyme
    vitamin c
  45. (feedback inhibition) the product of a reaction inhibits the enzyme that controls its formation
    negative feedback
  46. what are two types of negative feedback
    non-competitve inhibition and competitve inhibition
  47. a product activates the pathway leading to its own production
    positive feedback
  48. three factors that can affect enzyme activity
    ph changes, salt concentration, and temperature
  49. when a solute is more concentratedf in one region than in a neighboring one. it dissapates unless energy is expended to maintain it.
    concentration gradient
  50. this represents a form of potential energy
    concentation gradient
  51. a cell can maintain a ________ if the cell expends energy to do so.
    concentration gradient
  52. if a cell does not expend energy, then the concentration gradient will dissipate due to _______.
    random molecular movement
  53. the tendency for particles of any kind to spread out from areas of high concentration to areas of low concentration
    diffusion
  54. diffusion occurs because all substances have ____ energy; they are in constant ___ motion
    • kinetic
    • random
  55. simple diffusion (no proteins required) in which a substance moves down its concentration gradient without the use of a carrier molecule
    passive transport
  56. What are three types of passive transport
    simple diffusion, osmosis, facilitated diffusion
  57. substances to which the membran is permeable moves across a membrane without the assistance of transport protiens
    simple diffusion
  58. water diffuses across a selectively permeable membrane
    osmosis
  59. substances to which the membrane is not permeable move across the membrane with the assistnace of transport protiens
    facilitated diffusion
  60. concentrations are equal the solution
    isotonic
  61. type of solution that will cause plant cells to be flacid (wilt)
    isotonic
  62. type of solution that animal cells are happiest in
    isotonic
  63. lower concentration of solute
    hypotonic
  64. type of solution that causes cells to burst
    hypotonic
  65. type of solution that is best for plants
    hypotonic
  66. type of solution that makes a plant turgid (stand up staight)
    hypotonic
  67. higher concentration of solute
    hypertonic
  68. type of solution that will cause hemolysis when red blood cell is placed in it
    hypertonic
  69. type of solution that causes the cells water to rush up and makes the cell shrivel up
    hypertonic
  70. type of solution that causes plasmolysis in plants when the water rushes out and the plant shrivels
    hypertonic
  71. a chemical gradient represents a form of _____ energy
    potential
  72. tow fomrs of transport that use vesicles:
    endocytosis and exocytosis
  73. allows a cell to engulf fluids and large molecules and bring them into the cell
    endocytosis
  74. (cells package substances to be secreted into vesicles, which fuse with the cell membrane to release the materials) uses vesicles to transport fluids and large particles out of cells
    exocytosis
  75. the sum of all endergonic and exergonic reations in a cell
    cellular metabolism
  76. for a cell to use chemical energy to perform work, it must couples these two types of reactions
    endergonic and exergonic
  77. when a cell uses chemical energy to perform work, it couples an exergonic reaction with an endergonic reation. this process is known as
    energy coupling
  78. this is essential to energy coupling
    ATP
  79. ____ stores the usable energy released from the exergonic reactions
    ATP
  80. ATP becomes _____ when it loses a phosphate
    ADP
  81. Hydrolysis of ATP is an ____ reaction because it releases energy
    exergonic
  82. type of kinetic energy. does not destroy energy just makes it more useful. most difficult to tame. energy in its most chaotic form
    heat
  83. potential energy of molecules
    chemical energy
  84. a measure of a disorder
    entropy
  85. diffusion across a membrane is known as
    passive transport
  86. particles will diffuse down a concentration gradient until ___ is reached
    equilibrium
  87. movement of a substance across a membrane from high concentration to low
    diffusion
  88. diffusion of a substance across the plasma membrane by help of a transport protein
    facilitated diffusion
  89. this type of diffusion works with a concentration gradient and a transport protein
    facilitated diffusion
  90. requires energy to move a substance across a membrane
    active transport
  91. an example of active transport
    sodium potassium pump
  92. cellular eating
    phagocytosis
  93. cellular drinking
    pinocytosis
  94. pulls a very specific type of molecule into the cell
    receptor-mediated endocytosis
  95. ____ help lower activation energy
    enzymes
  96. activation energy is ____ to help enzymes
    lower
  97. when the substrate fits into the active site and it embraces it to begin the reaction
    induced fit
  98. how many times can an enzyme be used
    it can be used over and over and will never lose its shape
  99. blocks active site and causes it to change shape. this can be reversed
    substrate imposter
  100. changes the shape of enzymes active site
    imposter and inhibitor
  101. diffusion of water
    osmosis
  102. when a red blood cell is placed in a hypertonic solution
    hemolysos
  103. when the water rushes out of a plant cell and the plant begins to shrivel
    plasmolysis

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