PHILO 101 - 5

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blueclues
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135134
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PHILO 101 - 5
Updated:
2012-04-28 00:08:23
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philosophy philosopher king plato naturalist aristotle
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Ch. 5, 6
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  1. Platonic Forms
    independently existing objects of thought; that which makes a particular thing uniquely and essentially what it is
  2. Instumental Theory of Morality
    right and wrong must be determined by the consequences of acts;

    right and wrong viewed as means for getting something else
  3. Functionalist Theory of Morality
    right and wrong can be understood only in terms of their effect on anything's natural purpose; each kind of thing has a natural purpose
  4. Virtue (Platonic)
    excellence of function (which reflects form)
  5. Justice (Platonic)
    Excellence of function for the whole

    In society: each individual performs his/her natural function according to class

    In a individual: reason rules the spirit and the appetites
  6. Utopia
    Greek: "nowhere"

    term for a perfect/ideal society
  7. Naturalism
    belief that reality consists of the natural world; denial of the existence of a seperate supernatural order of reality; belief that nature follows orderly, discoverable laws
  8. Form (Aristotle)
    that which is in matter and makes a thing what it is; can be abstracted from matter but cannot exist independently of matter
  9. Matter (Aristotle)
    common material stuff found in a variety of things; it has no distinct characteristics until some form is imparted to it or until the form inherent in a thing becomes actualized
  10. Material Cause
    the substance from which a thing comes, and in which change occurs, 1st of Aristotle's 4 Causes
  11. Formal Cause
    the shape into which matter is changed; 2nd of Aristotle's 4 Causes
  12. Efficient Cause
    triggering cause that initiates activity; the substance by which a change is brought about; 3rd of Aristotle's 4 Causes
  13. Final Cause
    that for which an activity or purpose takes place; a thing's very reason for being; 4th of Aristotle's Causes
  14. Entelechy
    Greek: "having its end within itself"

    Aristotle: inner order/design that governs all natural processes
  15. Teleological Thinking
    way of explaining things in terms of their ultimate goals; understanding things functionality in terms of the relationship of the parts to the whole
  16. eudaimonia
    "happiness"

    Aristotle: fully realized existence; state of being fully aware, vital, alert
  17. sophrosyne
    wisdom as moderation; hitting the mark; quality of finding the mean between excess and deficiency
  18. Character
    the sum total of a person's traits

    Aristotle: the overall (generally fixed) nature or tone of a person's habits
  19. Mean
    the midpoint between two other points

    for Aristotle: a balance between too little (deficiency) and too much (excess)

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