Cell biology; Biology part 1
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Cell theory (4)
-all living things are made of cells
-cells contain all the basic units needed for life
-all cells come from other cells
-cells are small and tend to maximize their surface area
Cells are microscopic because...
as cell size increases, the surface area to volume ratio decreases
-thus rates of chemical exchange may then be inadequate for cell size.
refract visible light passing through a specimen such that projected image is magnified
Electron microscope (EM)
focuses a beam of electrons through the specimen
2 types of electron microscopes
Transmission electron and scanning electron
electron beam scans the surface of specimen.
-image appears 3-D
a beam of electrons passed through a thin section of specimen stained with atoms of heavy metals and electromagnets
Prokaryotes characteristics (5)
-in nuceoid region
-may not need oxygen
- no membrane-bound organelles
Eurakaryotes characteristics (5)
-within membrane bound nucleus
-usually need oxygen to exist
-complex, dynamic structures made of lipid and proteing molecules
- *communicates with other cells
- *regulates passage of materials
- *transmits signals between cell interior and the environment
Membranes are selectively permeable by...
-diffusion and Osmosis
-channel proteins and carrier proteins
movement of molecules out of cell using membrane fusion
ex)removing cellular waste; exporting proteins
movement of molecules into the cell using membrane fusion
net movement of a substance from a region of greater to lower concentration
net water movement into the cell
net water movement out of water
no net water movement
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