A&P Ch10

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Cascio
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135197
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A&P Ch10
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2012-02-14 11:49:29
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AAOS Paramedic
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Vital Vocabulary Cards for Jones and Barlett AAOS Paramedic: Anatomy and Physiology
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  1. a complete obstruction of urinary flow sometimes caused by enlargement of the prostate gland
    acute urinary retention
  2. a form of energy created by cellular respiration
    adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
  3. a biochemical process that occurs in the presence of oxygen results in the production of energy in the form of ATP, also called cellular respiration
    aerobic metabolism
  4. structure that supplies blood to the glomerulus
    afferent arteriole
  5. a steroid hormone produced by the adrenal gland that increases the rate of sodium and water resorption from the distal tubules back into the blood
    aldosterone
  6. the productive component of metabolism associated with the build-up of energy stores and body tissues
    anabolism
  7. an alternate form of metabolism that occurs when oxygen levels are low and less energy is produced that during aerobic respiration, lactic acid is produced as a waste product during this process
    anaerobic metabolism
  8. a form of kinin that plays a role in blood pressure maintenance by causing vasoconstriction and sympathetic activation and by stimulating the adrenal gland to increase the production of aldosterone
    angiotensin II
  9. a hormone released by the pituitary gland that causes the kidney to reabsorb more water into the blood and excrete less urine
    antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
  10. the baseline metabolic rate of the body, or energy required to maintain the body's normal functions at rest
    basal metabolic rate (BMR)
  11. a thin double-walled chamber that surrounds the glomerulus
    Bowman's capsule
  12. large urinary tubes that enter the pelvis from the kidney tissue
    calyces
  13. the destructive component of metabolism associated with the breakdown of larger molecules into smaller molecules
    catabolism
  14. a biochemical process resulting in the production of energy in the form of ATP
    cellular respiration
  15. a small erectile organ of the female located at the anterior part of the vulva
    clitoris
  16. a mechanism by which solutes are transported against a gradient allowing the body to produce a concentrated or dilute urine depending on its needs at any point in time
    countercurrent multiplier mechanism
  17. a bacterial infection of the bladder and its urinary contents
    cystitis
  18. a condition often caused by pituitary dysfunction that is associated with production of large volumes of dilute urine and in which patient's experience intense thirst
    diabetes insipidus
  19. a procedure in which an artificial kidney external to the body is used to purify the blood
    dialysis
  20. one of the two complex sections of a nephron, it empties urine into a collection duct and then carries it to the calyces
    distal convoluted tubule
  21. structure that drains blood from the glomerulus
    efferent arteriole
  22. the narrow opening at the end of the male urethra
    external urethral orifice
  23. representing nearly 20% of the total body weight, fluid found outside of the cell membranes
    extracellular fluid
  24. an energy-requiring process that aids in the movement of particles through gradients
    facilitated diffusion
  25. the membranes separating the capillaries and Bowman's membrane
    filtration membrane
  26. gaps in the glomerular capillaries that filter blood and produce urine
    filtration slits
  27. the process of maintaing homeostasis through equal intake and output of fluids
    fluid balance
  28. the rate at which blood is filtered through the glomerula
    glomerular filtration rate
  29. a semipermeable capillary filter located within Bowman's capsule in the nephron
    glomerulus
  30. storage form of glucose in the liver
    glycogen
  31. the splitting of a molecule by adding water
    hydrolysis
  32. elevated body temperature
    hyperthermia
  33. storage form for glucose in the liver
    glycogen
  34. the part of the brain responsible for maintenance of homeostasis including control of body temperature, fluid/electrolyte balance and blood pressure, produces ADH
    hypothalamus
  35. low body temperature, generalized cooling of the body's core
    hypothermia
  36. fluid located outside of the blood vessels in the spaces between the body's cells
    interstitial fluid
  37. representing nearly 45% of total body weight, fluid found within individual cells
    intracellular fluid
  38. noncellular portion of blood found within the blood vessels, also called plasma
    intravascular fluid
  39. structure formed from two groups of specialized cells, the macula densa and juxtaglomerular cells, that plays an important roll in regulating fluid balance
    juxtaglomerular apparatus
  40. a group of cells located in the afferent arterioles of the glomerulus that play a part in regulating the volume status of the body
    juxtaglomerular cells
  41. solid crystalline masses formed in the kidney that may become trapped anywhere along the urinary tract
    kidney stones
  42. solid, bean shaped organs located in the retroperitoneal space that filer blood and excrete body wastes in the form of urine
    kidneys
  43. a unit of heat measure, abbreviated as C
    kilocalories
  44. a process of metabolization of foodstuffs into energy to be stored
    Kerbs cycle
  45. U-shaped portion of the renal tubule that extends from the proximal to the distal convoluted tubule
    loop of Henle
  46. specialized tubular cell in the juxtaglomerular area that play a part in regulating the volume status of the body
    macula densa
  47. the inner portion of kidney tissue
    medulla
  48. one of three parts of the male urethra, it extends from the prostate gland to the base of the penis
    membrane urethra
  49. the combination of all chemical processes that take place in the body, resulting in growth, generation of energy, body heat, elimination of wastes, and other bodily functions
    metabolism
  50. a spinal reflex that causes contraction of the smooth muscle of the bladder, allowing for urination
    micturition reflex
  51. an intracellular organelle where foodstuffs are metabolized
    mitochondrion
  52. the functional unit of the kidney
    nephron
  53. an infection of the urethra caused by organisms of the Chlamydia family
    nonspecific nongonococcal urethritis
  54. the production of ATp, which takes place in the mitochondria during cellular respiration
    oxidative phosphorylation
  55. the noncellular or fluid portion of blood found within the blood vessels, also called intravascular fluid
    plasma
  56. a muscular gland located at the base of the male urethra
    prostate gland
  57. one of three parts of the male urethra, it travels through the prostate gland
    prostate urethra
  58. one of two complex sections of a nephron, it includes an enlargement at the end called Bowman's capsule
    proximal convoluted tubule
  59. salivary enzyme that splits starch into maltose
    ptyalin
  60. a potentially severe bacterial infection of the renal pelvis, medulla and cortex
    pyelonephritis
  61. a protective layer of fibrous connective tissue surrounding each kidney
    renal capsule
  62. a structure formed by the glomerulus and Bowman's capsule
    renal corpuscle
  63. the outer portion of the kidney tissue
    renal cortex
  64. loss of kidney function that occurs secondary to injury or illness
    renal failure
  65. the point of the medial side of each kidney where the renal artery and nerves enter and the renal vein and ureter exit
    renal hilum
  66. the tip of each renal pyramid, which extends into the medulla and is encircled by the opening of a minor calyx
    renal papilla
  67. an enlargement in the central portion of the renal sinuses
    renal pelvis
  68. cone-shaped structures that extend into the cortex and form medullary rays
    renal pyramids
  69. cavity formed by the hilum that is filled with fat and connective tissue
    renal sinus
  70. a hormone produced by cells in the juxtaglomerular apparatus when the blood pressure is low
    renin
  71. system located in the kidney that helps to regulate fluid balance and blood pressure
    renin-angiotensin system
  72. one of three parts of the male urethra, it lies within the corpus spongiosum of the penis and terminates at the external urethral orifice
    spongy urethra
  73. normal bodily means of heat loss and gain
    thermolysis
  74. the maintenance of normal body temperature
    thermoregulation
  75. a pair of thick walled, hollow tubes that carry urine from the kidneys to the urinary bladder
    ureters
  76. a hollow, tubular structure that drains urine from the bladder, passing it outside of the body
    urethra
  77. a bacterial infection of the urethra
    urethritis
  78. the laboratory evaluation of urine
    urinalysis
  79. a hollow, muscular sac in the midline of the lower abdominal area that stores urine until is is excreted
    urinary bladder
  80. body system that removes waste products from the blood by a complex filtration process that produces urine
    urinary system
  81. liquid waste products filtered out of the body by the urinary system
    urine
  82. condition characterized by the presence of a kidney stone
    urolithiasis
  83. a canal in the female extending from the uterus to the external orifice
    vagina
  84. tubules, leading from the arterioles in the glomerulus, that play an important role in the concentration of urine
    vasa recta

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