A&P Ch12

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Cascio
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135199
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A&P Ch12
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2012-02-14 11:53:17
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AAOS Paramedic
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Vital Vocabulary Cards for Jones and Barlett AAOS Paramedic: Anatomy and Physiology
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  1. the development into overly large size because of excessive production of growth hormone, also called gigantism
    acromegaly
  2. acute adrenocortical insufficiency
    Addisonian crisis
  3. one of the two portions of the pituitary gland, it produces hormones that are not neurohormones; also called the anterior pituitary lobe
    adenohypophysis
  4. the outer layer of the adrenal gland, it produces hormones that are important in regulating the water and salt balance of the body
    adrenal cortex
  5. glands located on top of each kidney that produce and secrete certain sex hormones, as well as other hormones that are vital to maintaining the body's water and salt balance, also called suprarenal glands
    adrenal glands
  6. hormone produced by the adrenal glands that mediates the "fight or flight" response of the sympathetic nervous system, also called epinephrine
    adrenaline
  7. one of the several molecules derived from a common precursor, proopiomeloanocortin, that is essential for development of the cortex of the adrenal gland and its secretion of corticosteroids
    adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
  8. hormone produced by the adrenal cortex that is important in the regulation of water and salt balance in the body
    aldosterone
  9. cells located in the islet cells of Langerhans that secrete glucagon
    alpha cells
  10. synthetic androgens used to increase muscle mass
    anabolic steroids
  11. male sex hormone
    androgens
  12. a steroid sex hormone secreted by the adrenal cortex, testes and ovaries
    androstenedione
  13. one of the two portions of the pituitary gland, it produces hormones that are not neurohormones, also called the adenohypophysis
    anterior pituitary lobe
  14. a hormone secreted by the posterior pituitary lobe of the pituitary gland, it constricts blood vessels and raises the blood pressure, also called vasopressin
    antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
  15. cells located in the islets of Langerhans that secrete insulin
    beta cells
  16. proteins that have the same effect as opiate drugs such as morphine
    beta-endorphins
  17. a hormone produced by the parafollicular cells of the thyroid gland that is important in the regulation of calcium levels in the body
    calcitonin
  18. a condition that results in excess secretion of aldosterone, most commonly caused by a benign tumor
    Conn's syndrome
  19. any of several steroids secreted by the adrenal gland
    corticosteroids
  20. the most important corticosteroid secreted by the zona fasciculata, it has many effects on the body
    cortisol
  21. a disorder caused by excessive production of cortisol by the adrenal glands resulting in obesity, abnormal hair growth, high blood pressure, emotional disturbances, and the so called "moonface"
    Cushing's syndrome
  22. a disorder of the pituitary gland that results in large volumes of dilute urine
    diabetes insipidus
  23. a condition that results from impaired production of insulin by the pancreas
    diabetes mellitus
  24. stunted growth due to deficiency of growth hormone
    dwarfism
  25. glands that empty secretions )hormones) directly into the blood
    endocrine glands
  26. a system of glands located throughout the body that secrete hormones that regulate many body functions, including growth, reproduction, temperature, metabolism, and blood pressure
    endocrine system
  27. hormone produced by the adrenal glands that mediates the "fight or flight" response in the sympathetic nervous system, also called adrenaline
    epinephrine
  28. produced by the ovaries, one of the three major female hormone
    estrogen
  29. glands that empty their products through ducts, usually onto epithelial surfaces
    exocrine glands
  30. abnormal protrusion of the eye resulting from hyperthyroidism
    exophthalmos
  31. the concept that once the desire effect of a hormone has been achieved, further production of the hormone is inhibited until it is needed again, also referred to as negative feed back
    feedback inhibition
  32. small cavity glands within the thyroid gland that contain thyroglobulin
    follicles
  33. hormone that regulates the production of both eggs and sperm, as well as production of reproductive hormones
    follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)
  34. development into overly large size because of excessive growth hormone, also called acromegaly
    gigantism
  35. a cell, group of cells, or an organ that selectively removes, concentrates, or alters materials in the blood and secretes them back into the body
    glands
  36. hormone produced by the pancreas that is vital to the control of the body's metabolism and blood sugar level
    glucagon
  37. hormones secreted by the zona fasciculata that play an important role in metabolism and inhibit inflammation
    glucocorticoids
  38. a process that stimulates both the liver and the kidneys to produce glucose from non carbohydrate molecules
    gluconeogenesis
  39. a long polymer from which glucose is converted in the liver
    glycogen
  40. an enlarged thyroid gland
    goiter
  41. a hormone released by the hypothalamus that influences the release of Lh and FSH
    gonadotropin-releasing hormone
  42. the reproductive glands
    gonads
  43. hormone that stimulates growth in most tissues, especially of long bones in the extremities, also called somatotropin
    growth hormone (GH)
  44. a hormone released by the hypothalamus that inhibits the secretion of growth hormone, also called somatostatin
    growth hormone release-inhibiting hormone
  45. a hormone released by the hypothalamus that stimulates secretion of growth hormone
    growth hormone-releasing hormone
  46. an enzyme that is activated by glucagon, it breaks triglycerides down into fatty acids and glycerol
    hormone sensitive lipase
  47. proteins secreted by glands to regulate body functions
    hormones
  48. one of three major female hormones; it is produced by a developing embryo after conception
    human chorionic gonadotropin (hCH)
  49. condition that results in loss of calcium from the bones, as well as increases in serum calcium levels, caused by excess secretion of parathyroid hormones
    hyperparathyroidism
  50. overactivity of the thyroid gland, which results in increased metabolic rates, weight loss, rapid heart rate, elevated blood pressure, diarrhea, and abnormal posturing of the eyes
    hyperthyroidism
  51. potentially life-threatening low blood calcium levels resulting from loss of parathyroid function
    hypocalcemia
  52. the gland that secretes hormones that regulate the function of many other glands in the body, also called the pituitary gland
    hypophysis
  53. the interactions of the hypothalamus and the pituitary gland
    hypothalamic-pituitary axis
  54. a complex set of interactions that regulates the secretions of corticosteroids
    hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis
  55. a specialized set of blood vessels that carry releasing factors from the hypothalamus to the anterior pituitary lobe
    hypothalamohypophyseal portal system
  56. the basal part of the diencephalon, it regulates the function of the pituitary gland
    hypothalamus
  57. the stalk that connects the hypothalamus to the pituitary gland
    infundibulum
  58. compounds that travel from the hypothalamus to the pituitary gland in a specialized set of blood vessels, also called releasing factors
    inhibiting factors
  59. hormone produced by the pancreas that is vital in the control of the body's metabolism and blood sugar level
    insulin
  60. a specialized group of cells in the pancreas where insulin and glucagon are produced
    islets of Langerhans
  61. a narrow band of tissue that connects the two lobes of the thyroid gland
    isthmus
  62. hormone that regulates the production of both eggs and sperm, as well as production of reproductive hormones
    luteinizing hormone (LH)
  63. the inner portion of the adrenal glands, which produces epinephrine and norepinephrine
    medulla
  64. hormones produced in the zona glomerulosa that are important in the regulation of water and salt balance in the body
    mineralocorticoids
  65. the concept that once the desired effect of a hormone has been achieved, further production of the hormone is inhibited until it is needed again, also called feedback inhibition
    negative feedback
  66. hormones secreted by the posterior pituitary lobe
    neurohormones
  67. one of the two portions of the pituitary gland; it is an extension of the central nervous system and secretes hormones called neurohormones, also called the posterior pituitary lobe
    neurohypophysis
  68. hormone produced by the adrenal glands that is vital in the function of the sympathetic nervous system
    norepinephrine
  69. specialized neurons in the brain that regulate the secretion of ADH
    osmoreceptors
  70. the female reproductive glands
    ovaries
  71. a hormone that causes the smooth muscles of the pregnant uterus to contract and milk to be released from the breasts of lactating women
    oxytocin
  72. an organ of both the endocrine and digestive system, it produces the hormones insulin and glucagon
    pancreas
  73. cells located between the follicles in the thyroid gland that produce the hormone calcitonin
    parafollicular cells
  74. four glands that are embedded in the posterior portion of each lobe of the thyroid, they produce and secrete parathyroid hormone
    parathyroid glands
  75. the gland that secretes hormones that regulate the function of many other glands in the body, also called hypophysis
    pituitary gland
  76. the concept that once the desired effect of a hormone has been achieved, production of the hormone is continued
    positive feedback
  77. one of the two portions of the pituitary gland, it is an extension of the central nervous system and produces hormones called neurohormones, also called the neurohypophysis
    posterior pituitary lobe
  78. produced by the ovaries, it is one of three major female hormones
    progesterone
  79. hormone that plays an important role in milk production in women
    prolactin
  80. hormones released by the hypothalamus that influence inhibition of prolactin
    prolactin-inhibiting hormones
  81. hormones released by the hypothalamus that influence the release of prolactin
    prolactin-releasing hormones
  82. a group of hormone-like fatty acids that are produced in many body tissues, including the uterus, brain and kidneys
    prostaglandins
  83. compounds that travel from the hypothalamus to the pituitary gland in a specialized set of blood vessels, also called inhibiting factors
    releasing factors
  84. the space behind the peritoneum
    retroperitoneum
  85. proteins produced in the liver, skeletal muscle, and other tissues that are stimulated by growth hormone
    somatomedins
  86. a hormone released by the hypothalamus that inhibits the secretion of growth hormone also called growth hormone release-inhibiting hormone
    somatostatin
  87. hormone that stimulates growth in many tissues, especially long bones in the extremities, also called growth hormone
    somatotropin
  88. the male reproductive organs
    testes
  89. the major androgen produced by the testes
    testosterone
  90. painful muscle spasms that result from a low blood calcium level
    tetany
  91. one of the two major hormones produced by the thyroid gland, it is essential for normal growth development in children, as well as regulation of body metabolism
    tetraiodothyronine (T4)
  92. a protein to which thyroid hormones are bound
    thyroglobulin
  93. a large endocrine gland that is located at the base of the neck and produces and excretes hormones that influence growth, development and metabolism
    thyroid gland
  94. hormone that controls the release of thyroid hormone from the thyroid gland, also called thyrotropin
    thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)
  95. hormone that controls the release of thyroid hormone from the thyroid gland, also called thyroid-stimulating hormone
    thyrotropin
  96. a protein synthesized in the liver that binds to hormones T3 and T4
    thyroxine-binding globulin
  97. one of the two major hormones produced by the thyroid gland, it is essential for normal growth and development in children, as well as regulation of body metabolism
    triiodothyronine (T3)
  98. a hormone secreted by the posterior pituitary lobe of the pituitary gland, it constricts blood vessels and raised blood pressure, also called antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
    vasopressin
  99. one of three divisions of the adrenal cortex, it produces corticosteroids
    zona fasciculata
  100. one of three divisions of the adrenal cortex, it produces mineralocorticoids
    zona glomerulosa
  101. one of three divisions of the adrenal cortex, it secretes relatively weak male sex hormones, or androgens
    zona reticularis

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