building blocks of rocks

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Author:
wsrdpc
ID:
135203
Filename:
building blocks of rocks
Updated:
2012-02-14 12:17:19
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geology
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Description:
minerals: building blocks of rocks
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  1. mineralogy
    study of minerals
  2. mineral
    any naturally occuring inorganic solid that possesses an orderly crystalline structure & well defined chemical composition; occurs in nature, is solide, orderly repetitive structure that can be expressed in a chemical formula
  3. rock
    any solid mass of mineral or mineral like matter that occurs naturally as part of our planet
  4. aggregate
    several different items like minerals in one rock (granite is a rock made up of several minerals)
  5. atom
    smallest particule that cannot be chemically split
  6. make up of atoms
    # of protons and neutrons in the center usually the same # with electrons that surround the atom also usually the same amount
  7. valence electrons
    interact with other atoms to form chemical bonds
  8. atomic mass
    the number of protons in an atom that determines its chemical nature
  9. element
    group of the same kind of atom (90 natural & 23 synthesized)
  10. chemical compound
    elements that join with others to form a mineral
  11. octet rule
    atoms tend to gain, lose or share electrons until they are surrounded by 8 valence electrons
  12. chemical bond
    transfer of sharing of electrons that allows each atom to attain a full valence shell of electrons
  13. ionic bonds
    electrons are transferred between the atoms
  14. covalent bond
    electrons are shared between the atoms
  15. metallic bond
    electrons are shared among all the atoms in the element
  16. mass number
    total number of protons and neurtons in an atom
  17. isotopes
    an atom ith the same # of protons to make an element but a different number of neutrons
  18. radioactive decay
    the nuclei changes through random process becoming unstable isotope radiating energy & emit particles is used to measure age of fossils, rocks and minerals
  19. optical property
    used in identification of minerals and is luster, light transmission, color and streak of a mineral
  20. luster
    the appearance or quality of light that is reflected from the surface of the mineral (how the light hits the mineral)
  21. metallic luster
    appears to look like it is a metal
  22. submetallic luster
    is not as shiny as metal as if freshly broken, has a dull or tarnished appearance from the exposure to air
  23. nonmetallic luster
    described as having vitreous (glasy look), dull (earth luster like soil), pearly luster (like inside of clam shell) or silky luster (as if coated in oil)
  24. opaque
    no light will go through the sample
  25. translucent
    you see light through but no image can be seen through the sample
  26. transparent
    both light and image can be seen through the sample
  27. color
    the color of the sample can be misleading especailly for those that have several tints such as quartz
  28. streak
    the color of the powdered mineral that is obtained by rubbing the sample across a streak plate (unglazed porcelain piece) can help identfy the color of the mineral as will always have same streak color no matter the color of actual sample & distinguishes between metallic luster and nonmetallic luster
  29. crystal shape (habit)
    the shape of the crystall or aggregate of crystals
  30. hardness
    the resistance to abrasion or scratching
  31. mohs scale
    gives # value of hardness with diamond having the hardest of 10 and talc having the lowest of 1
  32. cleavage
    the tendecy of a mineral to break along planes of weak bonding, with a # of cleavage directions and angles at which they meet
  33. fracture
    having a chemical bond that equally or nearly so strong in all directions
  34. irregular fracture
    produces uneven surface
  35. conchoidal fracture
    breaks into smooth, curved surfaces like broken glass
  36. splintery fracture
    breaks into splinters
  37. fibrous fracture
    breaks into fibers
  38. density
    mass per unit volume
  39. specific gravity
    is used to describe the density, unit less # representing ratio of minerals weight to the weight of an equal volume of water
  40. other properties of minerals
    the taste, feel, smell, magnetic and ability to interact with acid
  41. double refraction
    when a transparent piece is placed over letters they appear to be seen twice
  42. rock forming minerals
    the minerals of the earth's surface
  43. economic minerals
    those used extensively in the manufactur of products
  44. 8 elements that are in bulk of rock forming minerals 98% of the continental crust by weight
    • oxygen
    • silicon
    • aluminum
    • iron
    • calcium
    • sodium
    • potassium
    • magnesium
  45. silicates
    they are made up of oxygen and silion that are the basic building blocks of the group
  46. nonsilicates
    other mineral groups they are far less abundant
  47. silicate minerals
    contain oxygen and silicon plus 1 or more additional elements
  48. silicon oxygen tetrahedron
    4 oxygen atoms that surround the smaller silicon atom
  49. mineral resources
    earth's storehouse of useful materials that can be recovered for use
  50. reserves
    already idenified deposits from which minerals can be extracted profitably
  51. ore
    useful metallic minerals that can be mined for profit
  52. why is silica the major component of magma
    it is abundant and can crystallize at any tempature depending on the othe chemicals with it

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