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Why Europe Set up colonies
1. Natural Resources
- land, water, coal, gold. Didnt use paper money- needed gold and silver for coins
4. Catholic Converts
- 2. Power- Countries constantly fighting, want to be bigger.
- Population- converts for religion and recruits for army, taxes, consumers, labor
. Topical/ Exotic Goods-
Europe only grew wheat for food- very bland. Wanted sugar- sweetener, preservative.
events of 1400s that lead to expansion
- 1. Population increases- need more food, space, resources
- 2. Absolutism- enormous states form- kings have all the power. Nationalism
- 3. Ottoman Empire rises (islamic)- block European trade routes, need to make new one, threaten to invade Eurpoe
- 1415 tries to get new trade rt to asia.
- Go around Africa
- Dont know Africa- if they will find water
- Keep trying
- Vasca De Gama eventually fins it
- Columbus thought he landed in India
Tordesillas Line 1494
- Pope draws Line in new worls for Spain/ Portugal
- Other countries cannot explore new nations
- Portugal already 2nd riches b/c trade rt to Asia, now have sugar from Brazil- begin slave trade
- Gets majority of North America
- Encomienda- enslaved native Americans, give them Catholic edu.
- Found mountains of silver- new currency in Europe
Tordesillas Line 1494/Spain
- Gets majority of North AmericaEncomienda- enslaved native Americans, give them Catholic edu.Found mountains of silver- new currency in Europe
- Silver made them the richest nation, used it to build up army and invade other countries. Causes france to explore too because they also want silver
England/Spain in 1500s- Fighting
- English- Reformation w/ Protestants
- Spain- launches counter Reformation- get rid of protestants, tries to take over England
- Protestants went to Americas for religious freedom
- 1530-1580 France/Eng/Netherlands captured Spanish ships full of silver. They colonize Barbados so they can station ships for supplies
- English go to North Caroline- colony disapeared, End their bid for colonization
- Failed/ disapeared colony, stopped English colonization b/c it cost so much
- Hakluyt- writter encouraging colonization
- Thought colonies should be used in Americas for commodities not silver.
- Also saud get rid of vagrants by having them go to US to work
English Economic Crisis 1580-1620
- commons- communal forests, farmlands. Lors made it private property- enclosure.
- Poor became vagrants- wandered around looking for commons. started robbing people
1607 Jamestown, VA
Head Right System
- Location chosen because it is low- Spanish wont attack
- Worst soil, couldnt find goal
- 1607-1612- Starving Time- monarchs wouldnt send money until profit
- 1611- Tobacco discovered. supressed hunger, addicting
- each farmer gets 50 acres if they pay for voyage to VA, plus 50 acres per person in family
Lord Baltimore- Catholic- purchased Maryland for English Catholic refuges
1640 becomes tobacco planter colony like VA
- Was originally a naval base to attack Spain,but Spanish war ended in 1640. No food/water- going to abandon
- Sugar Revolution- 100,000 Irish indentured servants die
- Need other labor- Royal African Co. in 1660 xdng xlz dx
- Need to expand- go to colonies- find rice instead of sugar
- English had SC, Spain had FL, fight over land
- King George purchased it
- General Oglethorpe- military base- wanted to have ppl in debtors prison come have free land, no slavery/alcohol
- System fails, but colony grows rice
what all southern colonies have in common
slavery, plantations, monoculture, elite society
Sagadohoc County, Maine
- 1607-1609 (failed)
- founded by Enlglish fishermen- cod fish
- Fishermen introduced smallpox that killed 90% of Native Americans --> opened up land for English settlement
- Wanted new church- seperatists
- Go to Plymouth, MA
- Establish new Protestand church--> didnt have hierarchy, with a monarchy at the top.
- Cannot farm in New England, Indians teach them how to grow corn
- Wanted reformation- no alcohol, prostitution, gambeling ect.
- Started to take over Parliament until Charles 1 bans it
- The Great Migration led by John Winthrop
- "Boston will be a 'city on a hill'"
- abolish hierarchy system of church, lead by community
Universal voting rights for all males over 21 for govenor, mayor, preachers, congress
Public Schools for boys/girls
- Predeterminism- belief that no matter what you do in your life, if you're going to Heaven/Hell is determined when you're born.
- The Chosen- ppl who are going to heaven. They are economically successful- show Gods favor
The great migration
- lead by John Winthrop
- Puritans- wanted to establish community in Americas with reformed church
- called New Netherlands from 160-1644
- Founded for beaver fur trade
- 1664 adopted Puritan way of life
- Founded by Quakers- William Pen
- No war/slavery
- No gender/wealth distinction- no clothes
- Didnt believe in organized church.
- Eeryone has an inner light- dont need priests ect to have a relationship with God.
- Land given by English to get rid of them.
Northern Colonies influenced by religion
- Plymouth- Pilgrims
- Boston- Puritans
- New York- adopted Puritan ways
- Pennsylvania- Quakers
- Maryland- Catholic Refuges
1607-1660 What England had been hoping to gain by colonies
- 1. Commodities- re-export goods in Europe.
- Domestic market- local shops increase
- Tarrifs/import taxes
- get rid of vagrants/ ppl who protested church.
colonies were captured consumers- could only buy English goods.
4. Shipping/ Shipbuilding
- biggest industry in England
- took over England in 1660- Restoration
- Adopts Merchantalism- use colonies to enrigh England, Navigational Acts
- If colonies follow navigational acts, they can self govern.
- Why colonies hate Navigational Acts--> prices for goods drop- limited market. English have monopoly- charge what they want
1. No Dutch or French in Empire
- 2. Customs Distics- create a central port in each colony- only place where ships can come in/out- English controls who is in colony.
- 3. Customs Officials- Royal Navy
- 4. Enumorated Commodities- No goods ssent directly to Dutch/ French
- 5. No foreign industry- could only buy from Eng
- 6. No foreign shipping/ ships
- Indentured servant system- ran out of land to give
- Agreement with Native Amer. that English oculd have East and Indians have west
- Bacon wanted to expand west- gathered 5,000 indentured servants- Indian genocide
Aftermath of the Bacon Rebellion
1. Realize indentured servitude doesnt work- turned to African Slave trade
2. New Law System- Racial Caste system, no consequences for mistreatment of slaves
3.Class System- lower class whites essential for militia. Small land grants taken from plantations for low class- bribe for serving in militia
1770-1776 Why People started identifying selves as American instead of English
1. Economy. captive market loosened. North and south started trading- realized they didnt need english. no export taxes
2. Population. Growing rapidly. Most born in US by end of 1776. People in the back country further away from the coast- not controlled by the English navy
- 3. Migration.
- Scot- Irish- fled to US because English enslavement.
- Germans- brought beer.
- Convicts. They and the Scot Irish hate english- dont associate identity with them.
- 4. Salem Witch Trials
- People stopped going to church until The Great Awakening by John Edwards. North/ south had union in common- national identity
- Jamestown, VA
- New York