Gluteal region and Thigh

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  1. what forms the pelvic girdle
    formed by 2 hip bones, joined in front at the pubic symphysis and separate behind by the upper part of the sacrum at the sacroiliac joint.
  2. What forms the bony pelvis?
    Pelvic girdle and the sacrum
  3. Acetabulum
    Deep cup-shaped fossa on the lateral surface of the hip, articulates with the head of the femur to form the hip joint
  4. Obturator foramen
    A large triangular gap below and in front of the acetabulum, closed by the obturator membrane
  5. Obturator canal
    Space that is anterosuperiorly in the obturator membrane where the obturator vessels and nerve leave the pelvis and enter the thigh
  6. What does the hip bone consist of?
    ilium, ischium, pubis that is fused in the adult
  7. Ilium
    fan-shaped, consists of a body and wing (ala)
  8. Body of ilium
    forms the upper part of the acetabulum
  9. Wing (ala) of ilium
    • forms the upper, expanded part of the hip bone
    • upper border contains the iliac crest
  10. iliac crest
    • upper border of wing,
    • ends ANT in the rounded ASIS and POST in the sharp PSIS
  11. Gluteal surface of ilium
    • faces backwards and LAT and is marked by the POST, ANT, and INF gluteal lines.
    • Where gluteal muscles arise
  12. iliac fossa
    occupies the ANT and upper part of the medial surface and is smooth and concave
  13. Sacropelvic surface of ilium
    lies below and behind the iliac fossa on the medial surface. Includes the auricular surface and iliac tuberosity
  14. Auricular surface of ilium
    articulates with the sacrum at the SI joint
  15. iliac tuberosity
    above and behind the auricular surface, for attachment of the interosseous sacroiliac ligament
  16. Ischium
    forms the lower POST part of the hip bone and consists of a body and a ramus
  17. Body of ischium
    lower and POST part of acetabulum
  18. Ischial spine
    • Sharp triangular projection from the posterior border of the ischium.
    • Attachment for the Sacropsinous ligament
  19. Ischial tuberosity
    • lower part of the dorsal surface of ischium
    • gibes origin to hamstrings and attachment to the sacrotuberous ligament
  20. Lesser sciatic
    Concavity between the ischial spine and ischial tuberosity.
  21. greater sciatic notch
    larger concavity above the ischial spine
  22. What converts the sciatic notches into the greater and lesser?
    The sacrospinous and sacrotuberous ligaments
  23. Ischiopubic ramus
    Ramus extends upwards and medially and fuses with the INF ramus of the pubis below the obturator foramen
  24. Pubis
    forms the ANT part of the hip bone and consists of a body and 2 rami, superior and inferior
  25. Body of Pubis
    wide compressed part of the bone just medial to the rami.
  26. Pubic symphysis
    Formed by the symphysial/ medial surface of the pubis joins the body of the pubis of the other side
  27. Pubic crest
    Thickened ANT border of pubis, ends laterally at the pubic tubercle
  28. superior ramus
    extends from the body of the pubis upward, backward and LAT to form the ANT part of the acetabulum.
  29. Pecten pubis
    Anterior border of the superior ramus, sharp edge that begins at the pubic tubercle and continues to the iliopubic (iliopectineal) eminence
  30. Inferior ramus
    passes backward, downward, and LAT to unite with the ramus of the ischium and form the ischiopubic ramus
  31. Femur
    • longest and strongest bone (depending on the time of day)
    • consists of a shaft, an upper end and lower end
  32. Upper end of femus
    head, neck, and greater and lesser trochanters
  33. Head of femus
    forms about 2/3 of a sphere and faces upward, MED and slightly forward
  34. Fovea
    small roughened pit below and behin the center of the head for the attachment of the ligament of the head
  35. neck
    connects head and shaft at about 125 degress with the shaft
  36. intertrochanteric line
    Marks anteriorly the junction of the neck with the shaft
  37. intertrochanteric crest
    Posterior at the junction of the neck and shaft of femur, rounded ridge
  38. Greater trochanter
    projects above the junction of the neck with the shaft
  39. trochanteric foassa
    • Roughened depression on the medial surface of the greater trochanter.
    • For the insertion of the obturator externus
  40. Lesser Trochanter
    • conical shape that projects MED from the posteromedial part of the junction of the neck with the shaft.
    • For insertion of iliopsoas
  41. Linea aspera
    • Roughened raised line on the POST border of the femur.
    • has MED and lateral lips that diverge in the upper and lower 1/3s of the shaft
  42. Gluteal tuberosity
    continuous with the LAT lip of linea aspera for the insertion of the deeper fibers of the lower portion of GLUT MAX
  43. Supracondylar lines
    in the lower 1/3 of shaft. Medial and lateral. COntinuous above with the corresponding lips of the linea aspera.
  44. Condyles
    Medial and lateral at the lower end of the femur. Separated below and behind by a deep gap called the intercondylar fossa
  45. Articular surface of condyles
    condyles are partially covered by these broad horseshoe-shaped. For articulation with the patella above and the tibia below
  46. Patella surface
    concave transersely and convex vertically and extends over the anterior surfaces of both condyles by projects high on the lateral than on the medial side
  47. tibial surfaces of femur
    convex from side to side and from front to back.
  48. Epicondyle
    most prominent points on the sides of the condyles. The collateral ligaments of the knee jiont are attached.
  49. adductor tubercle
    • small projection from the upper part of the medial condyle.
    • for insertion of the tendon of the ADD magnus
  50. Patella
    trianglus sesamoid bone that is embedded in the tendon of the insertion of the quadriceps. Quad tendon attaches to its upper border (base) and sides.
  51. patella tendon
    attaches to the lower border (apex of patella) to the tibial tuberosity.
  52. Fascia lata
    deep fascia of the thigh. Extensions from fascia lata to the linea aspera form the intermuscular septum
  53. Intermuscular septa
    divides the muscles of the thigh into ANT, MED and POST compartments
  54. Iliotibial tract
    Formed by fascia lata. Extends from the iliac crest to the LAT condyle of the tibia. TFL an GLUT MAX insert here.
  55. Anterior muscles of thigh supplied by
    femoral nerve and femoral artery
  56. ANT compartment muscles?
    ilopsoas, sartorius, and quadriceps
  57. MED compartment of thigh supplied by?
    • obturator nerve
    • obturator and femoral arteries
  58. Posterior muscles of the thigh
    biceps femoris, semitendinosus, and semimembranosus
  59. Innvervation and blood supply of the posterior muscles
    • tibial portion of the sciatic nerve
    • profunda femoris artery (branch of femoral)
  60. Femoral artery
    • continuation of the EXT iliac artery below the inguinal ligament, MED side of the thigh.
    • upper 1/3 - superficially in the femoral triangle
    • middle 1/3 - in the adductor canal deep to sartorius
    • lower 1/3 - through opening in the adductor magnus
  61. where does femoral artery change to popliteal?
    once it leaves the opening to the adductor magnus
  62. Profunda femoris (deep femoris)
    • arises in the femoral triangle
    • largest branch of the femoral artery
    • descends on the MED side of femur, on the ADD brevis and ADD magnus
  63. Perforating branches of the profunda femoris
    supply the hamstring muscles
  64. lateral femoral circumflex
    supplies the ANT muscles of the thigh
  65. MED femoral circumflex
    supplies the ADD muscles and the most of the blood to the hip joint
  66. Descending genicular artery
    at the end of the femoral artery. Anastomoses at the MED side of the knee with genicular branches of the popliteal artery
  67. Obturator artery
    branch of the INT iliac artery in the pelvis. Enters through the obturator canal
  68. Branches of the obturator artery
    supply the ADD muscles near the obturator membrane and hip joint
  69. Femoral Nerve
    • POST divisions of ventral rami of L2-4
    • Through the psoas major, passes between it and the iliacus then behind the inguinal ligament.
  70. Muscular branches of the femoral nerve:
    iliacus, sartorius, quadriceps femoris, pectineus
  71. Intermediate and medial cutaneous nerves of thigh
    skin on the front and MED side of thigh
  72. Saphenous nerve
    • branch of femoral
    • cutaneous just above the knee
    • supplies the skin of the MED side of the leg and foot
  73. Obturator nerve
    • ANT division nerves L2-4
    • Through obturator canal entering the thigh.
    • Divides into ANT and POST branch that are separated by the ADD brevis
  74. ANT branch of the obturator nerve cutaneous innervation
    supplies small area of skin on MED side of thigh and
  75. anterior branch of obturator nerve muscle supply
    gracilis, ADD longus, ADD brevis, sometimes pectineus
  76. POST branch of obturator nerve
    ADD magnus nad oturator externus
  77. Sciatic nerve - Divisions?
    • ANT division - ventral rami of L4-5, S1-3 --> Form the tibial nerve
    • POST division - ventral rami of L4-5, S1-2 --> Form the common fibular nerve
  78. Path of sciatic
    leaves pelvis, enters the gluteal region passing through the greater sciatic formen, below piriformis. Deep to gluteus maximus, betwee the greater trochanter and ischial tuberosity. Lies on ADD magnus and is crossed POST by long hea of biceps femoris. Lower 1/3 it divides into tibial and fibular nerve
  79. Tibial nerve innervates?
    LH of biceps femoris, semitendinosis, semimembranus, and ischiocondylar portion of ADD magnus
  80. Common fibular in thight supplies
    short head of biceps femoris
Card Set
Gluteal region and Thigh
If I said you have a nice gluteus maximus, would you hold it against me?
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