Gluteal region and Thigh
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what forms the pelvic girdle
formed by 2 hip bones, joined in front at the pubic symphysis and separate behind by the upper part of the sacrum at the sacroiliac joint.
What forms the bony pelvis?
Pelvic girdle and the sacrum
Deep cup-shaped fossa on the lateral surface of the hip, articulates with the head of the femur to form the hip joint
A large triangular gap below and in front of the acetabulum, closed by the obturator membrane
Space that is anterosuperiorly in the obturator membrane where the obturator vessels and nerve leave the pelvis and enter the thigh
What does the hip bone consist of?
ilium, ischium, pubis that is fused in the adult
fan-shaped, consists of a body and wing (ala)
Body of ilium
forms the upper part of the acetabulum
Wing (ala) of ilium
- forms the upper, expanded part of the hip bone
- upper border contains the iliac crest
- upper border of wing,
- ends ANT in the rounded ASIS and POST in the sharp PSIS
Gluteal surface of ilium
- faces backwards and LAT and is marked by the POST, ANT, and INF gluteal lines.
- Where gluteal muscles arise
occupies the ANT and upper part of the medial surface and is smooth and concave
Sacropelvic surface of ilium
lies below and behind the iliac fossa on the medial surface. Includes the auricular surface and iliac tuberosity
Auricular surface of ilium
articulates with the sacrum at the SI joint
above and behind the auricular surface, for attachment of the interosseous sacroiliac ligament
forms the lower POST part of the hip bone and consists of a body and a ramus
Body of ischium
lower and POST part of acetabulum
- Sharp triangular projection from the posterior border of the ischium.
- Attachment for the Sacropsinous ligament
- lower part of the dorsal surface of ischium
- gibes origin to hamstrings and attachment to the sacrotuberous ligament
Concavity between the ischial spine and ischial tuberosity.
greater sciatic notch
larger concavity above the ischial spine
What converts the sciatic notches into the greater and lesser?
The sacrospinous and sacrotuberous ligaments
Ramus extends upwards and medially and fuses with the INF ramus of the pubis below the obturator foramen
forms the ANT part of the hip bone and consists of a body and 2 rami, superior and inferior
Body of Pubis
wide compressed part of the bone just medial to the rami.
Formed by the symphysial/ medial surface of the pubis joins the body of the pubis of the other side
Thickened ANT border of pubis, ends laterally at the pubic tubercle
extends from the body of the pubis upward, backward and LAT to form the ANT part of the acetabulum.
Anterior border of the superior ramus, sharp edge that begins at the pubic tubercle and continues to the iliopubic (iliopectineal) eminence
passes backward, downward, and LAT to unite with the ramus of the ischium and form the ischiopubic ramus
- longest and strongest bone (depending on the time of day)
- consists of a shaft, an upper end and lower end
Upper end of femus
head, neck, and greater and lesser trochanters
Head of femus
forms about 2/3 of a sphere and faces upward, MED and slightly forward
small roughened pit below and behin the center of the head for the attachment of the ligament of the head
connects head and shaft at about 125 degress with the shaft
Marks anteriorly the junction of the neck with the shaft
Posterior at the junction of the neck and shaft of femur, rounded ridge
projects above the junction of the neck with the shaft
- Roughened depression on the medial surface of the greater trochanter.
- For the insertion of the obturator externus
- conical shape that projects MED from the posteromedial part of the junction of the neck with the shaft.
- For insertion of iliopsoas
- Roughened raised line on the POST border of the femur.
- has MED and lateral lips that diverge in the upper and lower 1/3s of the shaft
continuous with the LAT lip of linea aspera for the insertion of the deeper fibers of the lower portion of GLUT MAX
in the lower 1/3 of shaft. Medial and lateral. COntinuous above with the corresponding lips of the linea aspera.
Medial and lateral at the lower end of the femur. Separated below and behind by a deep gap called the intercondylar fossa
Articular surface of condyles
condyles are partially covered by these broad horseshoe-shaped. For articulation with the patella above and the tibia below
concave transersely and convex vertically and extends over the anterior surfaces of both condyles by projects high on the lateral than on the medial side
tibial surfaces of femur
convex from side to side and from front to back.
most prominent points on the sides of the condyles. The collateral ligaments of the knee jiont are attached.
- small projection from the upper part of the medial condyle.
- for insertion of the tendon of the ADD magnus
trianglus sesamoid bone that is embedded in the tendon of the insertion of the quadriceps. Quad tendon attaches to its upper border (base) and sides.
attaches to the lower border (apex of patella) to the tibial tuberosity.
deep fascia of the thigh. Extensions from fascia lata to the linea aspera form the intermuscular septum
divides the muscles of the thigh into ANT, MED and POST compartments
Formed by fascia lata. Extends from the iliac crest to the LAT condyle of the tibia. TFL an GLUT MAX insert here.
Anterior muscles of thigh supplied by
femoral nerve and femoral artery
ANT compartment muscles?
ilopsoas, sartorius, and quadriceps
MED compartment of thigh supplied by?
- obturator nerve
- obturator and femoral arteries
Posterior muscles of the thigh
biceps femoris, semitendinosus, and semimembranosus
Innvervation and blood supply of the posterior muscles
- tibial portion of the sciatic nerve
- profunda femoris artery (branch of femoral)
- continuation of the EXT iliac artery below the inguinal ligament, MED side of the thigh.
- upper 1/3 - superficially in the femoral triangle
- middle 1/3 - in the adductor canal deep to sartorius
- lower 1/3 - through opening in the adductor magnus
where does femoral artery change to popliteal?
once it leaves the opening to the adductor magnus
Profunda femoris (deep femoris)
- arises in the femoral triangle
- largest branch of the femoral artery
- descends on the MED side of femur, on the ADD brevis and ADD magnus
Perforating branches of the profunda femoris
supply the hamstring muscles
lateral femoral circumflex
supplies the ANT muscles of the thigh
MED femoral circumflex
supplies the ADD muscles and the most of the blood to the hip joint
Descending genicular artery
at the end of the femoral artery. Anastomoses at the MED side of the knee with genicular branches of the popliteal artery
branch of the INT iliac artery in the pelvis. Enters through the obturator canal
Branches of the obturator artery
supply the ADD muscles near the obturator membrane and hip joint
- POST divisions of ventral rami of L2-4
- Through the psoas major, passes between it and the iliacus then behind the inguinal ligament.
Muscular branches of the femoral nerve:
iliacus, sartorius, quadriceps femoris, pectineus
Intermediate and medial cutaneous nerves of thigh
skin on the front and MED side of thigh
- branch of femoral
- cutaneous just above the knee
- supplies the skin of the MED side of the leg and foot
- ANT division nerves L2-4
- Through obturator canal entering the thigh.
- Divides into ANT and POST branch that are separated by the ADD brevis
ANT branch of the obturator nerve cutaneous innervation
supplies small area of skin on MED side of thigh and
anterior branch of obturator nerve muscle supply
gracilis, ADD longus, ADD brevis, sometimes pectineus
POST branch of obturator nerve
ADD magnus nad oturator externus
Sciatic nerve - Divisions?
- ANT division - ventral rami of L4-5, S1-3 --> Form the tibial nerve
- POST division - ventral rami of L4-5, S1-2 --> Form the common fibular nerve
Path of sciatic
leaves pelvis, enters the gluteal region passing through the greater sciatic formen, below piriformis. Deep to gluteus maximus, betwee the greater trochanter and ischial tuberosity. Lies on ADD magnus and is crossed POST by long hea of biceps femoris. Lower 1/3 it divides into tibial and fibular nerve
Tibial nerve innervates?
LH of biceps femoris, semitendinosis, semimembranus, and ischiocondylar portion of ADD magnus
Common fibular in thight supplies
short head of biceps femoris
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