CELL BIO 370 E1 C2

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shockwave
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CELL BIO 370 E1 C2
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2012-02-15 13:41:30
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CELL BIO E1 C2
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3.6CELL BIO 370 E1 C2 GSU 2012
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  1. NONCOLVALENT BOND ENERGY IS WHAT?
    1 - 5 KCAL/MOL

    NOTE: NC IS A BOND BETWEEN 2 OPPOSITE CHARGES, NOT SHARED ELECTRONS.
  2. DEFINE AMPHOTERIC MOLECULES.
    ACT AS EITHER ACID OR BASE. WATER
  3. ACIDITY IS MEASURE USING THE pH SCALE. FORMULA?
    pH = -LOG [H+]
  4. CHANGES IN THE pH AFFECT THE _____ STATE AND FUNCTION OF PROTEINS.
    IONS
  5. T OR F?
    BUFFERS RESIST pH CHANGE.
    TRUE
  6. WHAT IS AN ISOMER?
    SAME CHM FORMULA, DIFFERENTLY ARRANGED.
  7. -OH
    WHAT GROUP IS THIS?
    HYDROXYL GROUP
  8. -COOH
    WHAT GROUP IS THIS?
    CARBOXYL GROUP
  9. CH3CH2OH
    COMMONLY KNOWN AS WHAT?
    ETHYL ALCOHOL (ethanol)....BEER!
  10. NAME 4 MACROMOLECULES
    • PROTEINS
    • LIPIDS
    • POLYSACCRIDES
    • NUCLEIC ACIDS
  11. C=O
    WHAT GROUP IS THIS?
    CARBONYL.

    DO NOT MIX UP WITH COOH, CARBOXYL!!!
  12. FRUCTOSE....KEYTOSE OR ALDOSE?
    • KETOSE.
    • C=O (CARBONYL IS LOCATED INSIDE AND NOT H CONNECTED.
  13. GLUCOSE. ALDOSE OR KETOSE?
    • ALDOSE.
    • CARBONYL, C=O,TERMINAL CARBON LOCATED AT END WITH H ATTACHED.
  14. SUGAR CAN BE LINEAR, BUT CAN FORM RING STRUCTURES CALLED _________
    PYRANOSES
  15. ASYMETRIC CARBONS BOND TO ______ DIFFERENT GROUPS
    4
  16. MOLECULES WITH ASYMETRIC CARBONS EXIST IN TWO FOEMS...NAME THEM
    • ENANTIOMERS AND STEROISOMERS
    • ENANTIOMER: is one of two stereoisomers that are mirror images of each other that are non-superposable (not identical), much as one's left and right hands are the same except for opposite orientation
  17. HOW DO YOU TELL D OR L
    LOOK AT HYDROXYL GROUP ON CARBON 2
  18. SUGARS CAN BE JOINED TOGTHER HOW?
    • COLVALENT GLYCOSIDIC BONDS
    • C1 OF ONE SUGAR AND THE HYDROXYL GROUP OF ANOTHER.
    • GENERATING A -C-O-C- LINKAGE BETWEEN THE TWO.
  19. SUCROSE IS COMPOSED OF WHAT
    • GLUCOSE AND FRUITCOSE.
    • G= 6C AND F=5C MOLECULE.
    • JOINED BY ALPHA 1,2 LINKAGE.
  20. WHAT IS LACTOSE COMPOSED OF AND HOW IS IT BONDED?
    • GLUCOSE AND GLACTOSE
    • BETA (1,4) LINKAGE
  21. WHAT SUGAR IS USED AS A SOURCE OF READILY AVAILABLE ENERGY
    DISACCRIDES
  22. DEFINE OLIGOSACCRIDES AND WHERE ARE THEY FOUND ?
    A LINK OF SMALL SUGARS THAT FORM A CHAIN. FOUND ON CELL SURFACES, MAYBE USED IN CELL RECONGIZATION.
  23. NAME 2 NUTRITIONAL POLYSACCRIDES
    GLYCOGEN AND STARCH
  24. NAME 3 STRUCTURAL POLYSACCCHARIDES
    • CELLULOSE
    • CHITIN
    • GLYCOSAMINOGLYCANS
  25. DEFINE GLYCOSAMINOGLYCANS
    • GAG
    • 2 SUGARS -A-B-A-B FORM
    • HEPARIN (INHIBS BLOOD COAGULATION)(ACTIVATES INHIBITOR ANTITHROMBIN)
    • ALSO FOUND IN SPACE AROUND CELLS.
  26. WHERE DO YOU FIND GLUCOSE IN PLANTS?
    • STARCH.
    • REMEMBER THAT STARCH IS LINKED GLUCOSE.
    • FOUND :amyloplasts of a plant seed
  27. _________ is a plant product made of unbranched glucose polymers
    Cellulose
  28. MOST ANIMALS CANT DIGEST CELLOSE, WHY
    because of b(1, 4) linkage
  29. Madeof unbranched N-acetylglucosamine polymers
    Chitin
  30. Diverse group of non-polar molecules
    LIPIDS
  31. _______ _____ are unbranched hydrocarbons with one terminal carboxyl group; amphipathic
    Fatty acids
  32. LIPID TYPE......Solids at room temp
    • Saturated fatty acids
    • lack C=C double bonds
  33. lack C=C double bonds
    SATURATED OR UNSATURATED ?
    • SATURATED.
    • SOLID AT RT
  34. _______ _______ _______ have one or more C=C double bonds and are liquid at room temp
    Unsaturated fatty acids
  35. In animals, fats are stored for energy in ______
    adipocytes
  36. ________ are four-ringed animal lipids
    (implicated in artherosclerosis)
    • STEROIDS
    • REMEMEBER THAT STEROIDS ARE LIPIDS!
  37. Phospholipid phosphatidylcholine
    NAME THE PARTS
  38. NAME THE 9 PROTEIN FUNCTIONS
    • METABOLIC
    • STRUCTURE..CYTOSKELETON
    • REGULATORY...HORMONES
    • RECEPTORS...IN MEMBRANE
    • MOVEMENT..MOTORS (THINK CELL)
    • Ab
    • CLOTS...HELP FORM
    • ABSORB LIGHT
    • TRANSPORT.....MATERIALS
  39. Amino acids are linked together by ______
    bonds into ________ chains to make
    proteins
    • peptide
    • polypeptide

    BOND C-N
  40. nPeptide bonds form between the------ & ------- OF participating
    amino acids
    • alpha-carboxyl and alpha-amino
    • THINK C-N
  41. WHEN AA IS POLAR HYDRO PHILLIC OR PHOBIC?
    • HYDROPHILLIC.
    • LOVES WATER
    • BOTH CHARGED AND UNCHARGED GROUPS
  42. WHAT AA GROUP HAS SIDE CHAINS THAT FORM IONIC BONDS & INVOLED IN CHM RXNS ?
    POLAR CHARGED
  43. NAME THE POLAR CHARGED
    • HIS.....HISTIDINE
    • ASP...ASPARTIC ACID
    • LYS.....LYSINE
    • ARG......ARGININE
    • GLU....GLUTAMIC ACID
    • "HALAG"
  44. WHAT AA GROUP FORMS H BONDS AND ASSOCIATE WITH WATER
    P[OLAR UNCHARGED
  45. NAME THE POLAR UNCHARGED AA
    • GLUTAMINE
    • ASPARAGINE
    • TYROSINE
    • THREONINE
    • SERINE
  46. WHAT AA GROUPS ARE HYDROPHOBIC?
    NONPOLAR
  47. NAME THE NONPOLAR AA
    • "VAMPLIT"
    • VALINE
    • ALANINE
    • METHIONINE
    • PHENYLALANINE
    • LEUCINE
    • ISOLEUCINE
    • TRYPTOPHAN
  48. NAME 3 AA WITH UNIQUE PROPERTIES
    • GLYCINE...SIMPLE H....PHILLIC OR PHOBIC
    • CYSTEINE.....SULFER ....POLAR UNCHARGED
    • PROLINE...PHOBIC..MAKES KINKS & FOLDS
  49. WHEN YOU ADD 2 CYS TOGTHER...OX OR REDUX?
  50. DEFINE PRIMARY STRUCTURE AND WHAT BOND TYPE
    • Sequence of amino acids in a polymer.
    • PEPTIDE BONDS
  51. alpha-helix, beta-sheets, kinks, loops, turns
    WHAT STRUCTURE TYPE ?
    ALSO NAME THE BOND TYPE
    • SECONDARY
    • H BONDS
  52. WHAT LEVEL OF STRUCTURE RESULTS FROM INTERACTIONS BETWEEN BACKBONE PORTIONS OF AJENCE OR NEARBY AA ?
    SECONDARY
  53. DEFINED AS THE ABSOLUTE SEQUENCE OF AA FROM AMINO END TO CARBOXYL END.
    PRIMARY
  54. PROTEIN FIBROUS, GLOBULAR, "PROTEIN MOTIFS"
    WHAT LEVEL OF STRUCTURE ?
    TERTIARY
  55. SICKLE CELL WHAT AA IS SWAPED FOR WHAT
    • Normally a charged glutamine,
    • Switched to non-polar valine.
  56. IN THE ALPHA HELIX, 360 DEGREE Turn for every ______ AA residues
    3.6
  57. IN A ALPHA HELIX, WHAT BOND FORMS BETWEEN THE AA'S?
    HYDROGEN
  58. Outer surface of water soluble proteins contains_______ AAs
    POLAR
  59. Common in globular proteins inside the cell...WHAT SECONDARY STRUCTURE TYPE ?
    ALPHA HELIX
  60. Fibrous proteins outside cell (connective tissues)
    Resist shearing forces
    Carbonyl and imine
    WHAT SECONDARY STRUCTURE TYPE?
    BETA PLEATED SHEETS
  61. LABEL THE STRUCTURES
    • Ribonuclease asTertiary Structure
    • Green spirals..a-helices N-terminal to C-terminal direction
    • Red ribbons are b-pleated sheets
    • Blues tructures are disulfide bridges
    • Loops and turns connect overall structure
  62. first globular protein whose tertiary structure was determined.
    WHAT, WHO & WHEN?
    • MYOGLOBIN
    • 1957
    • John Kendrew et al. at Cambridge University
  63. MYOGLOBIN HAS _______ in hydrophobic pocket that
    promotes O2 binding without oxidizing Fe
    HEME
  64. HOW WAS MYOLOBIN DISCOVERED?
    nx-ray crystalography
  65. T OR F MYOGLOBIN HAS 8 AA IN ALPHA HELIX FORM, NO BETA SHEETS OR DISULFIDE BRIDGES.
    TRUE
  66. NAME 3 Types of noncovalent bonds maintaining conformation of proteins.
    • VAN DER WAALS
    • HYDROGEN
    • IONIC
  67. WHAT LEVEL OF STRUCTURE RESULTS FROM R GROUP INTERACTIONS BTWN MULTIPLE PROTEIN CHAINS (SUBUNITS) WHICH FORM A FUNCTIONAL PROTEIN UNIT?
    QUATERNARY.
  68. T OR F ?
    Protein folding is a process that occurs in
    orderly steps by self assembly
    TRUE
  69. _____ _______ occur when groups of proteins
    associate to perform a specific function
    Multiprotein complexes
  70. ________ structure applies to proteins with sub-units
    Quarternary
  71. acetylcholinesterase CLOSES DUE TO WHAT TWO AA'S?
    tyrosine and phenylalanine
  72. IN WHAT PROTEIN STRUCTURES DO YOU FIND DIMERS?
    • QUADS.
    • a dimer made from identical subunits
  73. HEMOGLOBIN IS WHAT TYPE OF PROTEIN STRUCTURE
    QUAD
  74. T OR F ?
    Knowledge of a protein’s amino acid sequence rarely allows for prediction of protein’s higher order structure
    TRUE
  75. Knowledge of a protein’s amino acid
    sequence rarely allows for prediction of protein’s higher order structure...SO HOW DO YOU CHANGE IT?
    • Use site directed mutagenesis
    • Alterations in single amino acid
    • Must change the DNA that codes for protein
  76. Current technology enables us to make artificial genes. HOW?
    Code for proteins of specific amino acid sequences
  77. Pyruvate Dehydrogenase is a Multiprotein Complex. what is its main function?
    connect the glycolytic and TCA cycles which prevents product dilution
  78. Nucleotides consist of a ______ carbon sugar (ribose in RNA), a phosphate group and a nitrogen base
    5
  79. what is connected in a 3’-5’ phosphodiester bond?
    • Links between 3’ hydroxyl group and
    • one sugar with the 5’ phosphate group of the adjoining sugar. Nucleotides joined to form a strand covalently.
  80. Adenine and guanine
    Purines or Pyrimidines Nitrogenous Bases?
    FOUND IN DNA, RNA OR BOTH?
    • Found in both DNA and RNA.
  81. NAME THE Pyrimidines Nitrogenous Bases?
    FOUND IN DNA, RNA OR BOTH?
    • Cytosine and uracil in RNA
    • Cytosine and thymidine in DNA
  82. T OR F?
    RNA may have catalytic properties
    • TRUE.
    • THINK RIBOZYMES
  83. _______is a ribonucleotide with three phosphates (high energy)
    ATP
  84. Different types of sub-units are capable of self-assembly.
    WHAT EXPERIMENT PROVED THIS POINT?
    • 1950s experiments show that TMV (Tobacco Mosaic virus)
    • particles are capable of self assembly.
  85. T OR F
    PROKARYOTIC Ribosomal sub-units ARE KNOWN TO assemble spontaneously IN A STEP WISE MANOR?
    • TRUE.
    • Components of the mature eukaryotic ribosomal sub-units require accessory proteins to assemble.
    • THINK CHAPERONES.
  86. OBJECTIVE OF A CHAPERONE?
    GIVE ONE EXAMPLE!
    • Help proteins reach proper folded state.
    • Helps move across membranes
    • Helps with heat shock
    • E.coli GroEL protein is essential for the proper folding of other cellular proteins
  87. IN AD, The ϒ-secretase can act at either of the two
    cleavage sites of the APP, resulting in two different results.
    NAME THEM AND WHAT WHICH IS BAD.
    • AB40 AND AB 42
    • Aβ 42 difference is that it has a tendency to spontaneously refold into different confirmations that contain more β-pleated
    • sheets, and this is where the problem arises.
  88. DEFINE PROTEOME
    THE ENTIRE INVENTORY OF PROTEINS THAT IS PRODUCED BY AN ORGANISM. ALSO APPLIES TO THE INVENTORY OF ALL THE PROTIENS PRESENT IN A CELL, TISSUE OR ORGANELLE.
  89. DEFINE SITE-DIRECTED MUTAGENESIS
    A TECHNIQUE TO MODIFY A GENE IN A PREDETERMINED WAY SO AS TO PRODUCE A PROTEIN WITH A SPECIFICALLY ALTER AA SEQUENCE.
  90. ON A 2D GEL RUN WHAT ARE THE TWO UNITS OF MEASUREMENT?
    • kDA.....1.6605402E-24
    • pI...... isoelectric point.

  91. PRINCIPAL ANIMAL ENERGY STORAGE PRODUCT ESPECIALLY IN LIVER AND MUSCLE
    glycogen
  92. principal higher plant energy storage product with amylopectin
    Alpha-amylose
  93. principal higher plant energy storage product with alpha amylose
    amylopectin
  94. mainly structural; nutrient it can break it down… Mammals who use as a food source lack enzymes to digest it but have rumen.
    Highly insoluble
    cellulose
  95. structural, possibly some minor barrier functions
    peptidoglycan
  96. structural extremely important in development.
    Two alternating sugars usually one is an amino sugar
    beta 1-4 and beta 1-4 or beta 1-3.
    NO BRANCHING
    • glycosaminoglycan
    • (GAGs)
  97. where would you find glycosaminoglycans?
    extracellular material and spaces and around cells and connective tissue.
  98. name for products that added sugar component of D-glucose
    • glycogen
    • A amylose
    • amylopectin
    • cellulose
  99. what starts unit is composed of NAG-NAM?
    peptidoglycan
  100. what starts unit is composed of NAG?
    chitin

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