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NONCOLVALENT BOND ENERGY IS WHAT?
1 - 5 KCAL/MOL
NOTE: NC IS A BOND BETWEEN 2 OPPOSITE CHARGES, NOT SHARED ELECTRONS.
DEFINE AMPHOTERIC MOLECULES.
ACT AS EITHER ACID OR BASE. WATER
ACIDITY IS MEASURE USING THE pH SCALE. FORMULA?
pH = -LOG [H+]
CHANGES IN THE pH AFFECT THE _____ STATE AND FUNCTION OF PROTEINS.
T OR F?
BUFFERS RESIST pH CHANGE.
WHAT IS AN ISOMER?
SAME CHM FORMULA, DIFFERENTLY ARRANGED.
WHAT GROUP IS THIS?
WHAT GROUP IS THIS?
COMMONLY KNOWN AS WHAT?
ETHYL ALCOHOL (ethanol)....BEER!
NAME 4 MACROMOLECULES
- NUCLEIC ACIDS
WHAT GROUP IS THIS?
DO NOT MIX UP WITH COOH, CARBOXYL!!!
FRUCTOSE....KEYTOSE OR ALDOSE?
- C=O (CARBONYL IS LOCATED INSIDE AND NOT H CONNECTED.
GLUCOSE. ALDOSE OR KETOSE?
- CARBONYL, C=O,TERMINAL CARBON LOCATED AT END WITH H ATTACHED.
SUGAR CAN BE LINEAR, BUT CAN FORM RING STRUCTURES CALLED _________
ASYMETRIC CARBONS BOND TO ______ DIFFERENT GROUPS
MOLECULES WITH ASYMETRIC CARBONS EXIST IN TWO FOEMS...NAME THEM
- ENANTIOMERS AND STEROISOMERS
- ENANTIOMER: is one of two stereoisomers that are mirror images of each other that are non-superposable (not identical), much as one's left and right hands are the same except for opposite orientation
HOW DO YOU TELL D OR L
LOOK AT HYDROXYL GROUP ON CARBON 2
SUGARS CAN BE JOINED TOGTHER HOW?
- COLVALENT GLYCOSIDIC BONDS
- C1 OF ONE SUGAR AND THE HYDROXYL GROUP OF ANOTHER.
- GENERATING A -C-O-C- LINKAGE BETWEEN THE TWO.
SUCROSE IS COMPOSED OF WHAT
- GLUCOSE AND FRUITCOSE.
- G= 6C AND F=5C MOLECULE.
- JOINED BY ALPHA 1,2 LINKAGE.
WHAT IS LACTOSE COMPOSED OF AND HOW IS IT BONDED?
- GLUCOSE AND GLACTOSE
- BETA (1,4) LINKAGE
WHAT SUGAR IS USED AS A SOURCE OF READILY AVAILABLE ENERGY
DEFINE OLIGOSACCRIDES AND WHERE ARE THEY FOUND ?
A LINK OF SMALL SUGARS THAT FORM A CHAIN. FOUND ON CELL SURFACES, MAYBE USED IN CELL RECONGIZATION.
NAME 2 NUTRITIONAL POLYSACCRIDES
GLYCOGEN AND STARCH
NAME 3 STRUCTURAL POLYSACCCHARIDES
- 2 SUGARS -A-B-A-B FORM
- HEPARIN (INHIBS BLOOD COAGULATION)(ACTIVATES INHIBITOR ANTITHROMBIN)
- ALSO FOUND IN SPACE AROUND CELLS.
WHERE DO YOU FIND GLUCOSE IN PLANTS?
- REMEMBER THAT STARCH IS LINKED GLUCOSE.
- FOUND :amyloplasts of a plant seed
_________ is a plant product made of unbranched glucose polymers
MOST ANIMALS CANT DIGEST CELLOSE, WHY
because of b(1, 4) linkage
Madeof unbranched N-acetylglucosamine polymers
Diverse group of non-polar molecules
_______ _____ are unbranched hydrocarbons with one terminal carboxyl group; amphipathic
LIPID TYPE......Solids at room temp
- Saturated fatty acids
- lack C=C double bonds
lack C=C double bonds
SATURATED OR UNSATURATED ?
_______ _______ _______ have one or more C=C double bonds and are liquid at room temp
Unsaturated fatty acids
In animals, fats are stored for energy in ______
________ are four-ringed animal lipids
(implicated in artherosclerosis)
- REMEMEBER THAT STEROIDS ARE LIPIDS!
NAME THE PARTS
NAME THE 9 PROTEIN FUNCTIONS
- RECEPTORS...IN MEMBRANE
- MOVEMENT..MOTORS (THINK CELL)
- CLOTS...HELP FORM
- ABSORB LIGHT
Amino acids are linked together by ______
bonds into ________ chains to make
nPeptide bonds form between the------ & ------- OF participating
- alpha-carboxyl and alpha-amino
- THINK C-N
WHEN AA IS POLAR HYDRO PHILLIC OR PHOBIC?
- LOVES WATER
- BOTH CHARGED AND UNCHARGED GROUPS
WHAT AA GROUP HAS SIDE CHAINS THAT FORM IONIC BONDS & INVOLED IN CHM RXNS ?
NAME THE POLAR CHARGED
- ASP...ASPARTIC ACID
- GLU....GLUTAMIC ACID
WHAT AA GROUP FORMS H BONDS AND ASSOCIATE WITH WATER
NAME THE POLAR UNCHARGED AA
WHAT AA GROUPS ARE HYDROPHOBIC?
NAME THE NONPOLAR AA
NAME 3 AA WITH UNIQUE PROPERTIES
- GLYCINE...SIMPLE H....PHILLIC OR PHOBIC
- CYSTEINE.....SULFER ....POLAR UNCHARGED
- PROLINE...PHOBIC..MAKES KINKS & FOLDS
WHEN YOU ADD 2 CYS TOGTHER...OX OR REDUX?
DEFINE PRIMARY STRUCTURE AND WHAT BOND TYPE
- Sequence of amino acids in a polymer.
- PEPTIDE BONDS
alpha-helix, beta-sheets, kinks, loops, turns
WHAT STRUCTURE TYPE ?
ALSO NAME THE BOND TYPE
WHAT LEVEL OF STRUCTURE RESULTS FROM INTERACTIONS BETWEEN BACKBONE PORTIONS OF AJENCE OR NEARBY AA ?
DEFINED AS THE ABSOLUTE SEQUENCE OF AA FROM AMINO END TO CARBOXYL END.
PROTEIN FIBROUS, GLOBULAR, "PROTEIN MOTIFS"
WHAT LEVEL OF STRUCTURE ?
SICKLE CELL WHAT AA IS SWAPED FOR WHAT
- Normally a charged glutamine,
- Switched to non-polar valine.
IN THE ALPHA HELIX, 360 DEGREE Turn for every ______ AA residues
IN A ALPHA HELIX, WHAT BOND FORMS BETWEEN THE AA'S?
Outer surface of water soluble proteins contains_______ AAs
Common in globular proteins inside the cell...WHAT SECONDARY STRUCTURE TYPE ?
Fibrous proteins outside cell (connective tissues)
Resist shearing forces
Carbonyl and imine
WHAT SECONDARY STRUCTURE TYPE?
BETA PLEATED SHEETS
LABEL THE STRUCTURES
- Ribonuclease asTertiary Structure
- Green spirals..a-helices N-terminal to C-terminal direction
- Red ribbons are b-pleated sheets
- Blues tructures are disulfide bridges
- Loops and turns connect overall structure
first globular protein whose tertiary structure was determined.
WHAT, WHO & WHEN?
- John Kendrew et al. at Cambridge University
MYOGLOBIN HAS _______ in hydrophobic pocket that
promotes O2 binding without oxidizing Fe
HOW WAS MYOLOBIN DISCOVERED?
T OR F MYOGLOBIN HAS 8 AA IN ALPHA HELIX FORM, NO BETA SHEETS OR DISULFIDE BRIDGES.
NAME 3 Types of noncovalent bonds maintaining conformation of proteins.
- VAN DER WAALS
WHAT LEVEL OF STRUCTURE RESULTS FROM R GROUP INTERACTIONS BTWN MULTIPLE PROTEIN CHAINS (SUBUNITS) WHICH FORM A FUNCTIONAL PROTEIN UNIT?
T OR F ?
Protein folding is a process that occurs in
orderly steps by self assembly
_____ _______ occur when groups of proteins
associate to perform a specific function
________ structure applies to proteins with sub-units
acetylcholinesterase CLOSES DUE TO WHAT TWO AA'S?
tyrosine and phenylalanine
IN WHAT PROTEIN STRUCTURES DO YOU FIND DIMERS?
- a dimer made from identical subunits
HEMOGLOBIN IS WHAT TYPE OF PROTEIN STRUCTURE
T OR F ?
Knowledge of a protein’s amino acid sequence rarely allows for prediction of protein’s higher order structure
Knowledge of a protein’s amino acid
sequence rarely allows for prediction of protein’s higher order structure...SO HOW DO YOU CHANGE IT?
- Use site directed mutagenesis
- Alterations in single amino acid
- Must change the DNA that codes for protein
Current technology enables us to make artificial genes. HOW?
Code for proteins of specific amino acid sequences
Pyruvate Dehydrogenase is a Multiprotein Complex. what is its main function?
connect the glycolytic and TCA cycles which prevents product dilution
Nucleotides consist of a ______ carbon sugar (ribose in RNA), a phosphate group and a nitrogen base
what is connected in a 3’-5’ phosphodiester bond?
- Links between 3’ hydroxyl group and
- one sugar with the 5’ phosphate group of the adjoining sugar. Nucleotides joined to form a strand covalently.
Adenine and guanine
Purines or Pyrimidines Nitrogenous Bases?
FOUND IN DNA, RNA OR BOTH?
- Found in both DNA and RNA.
NAME THE Pyrimidines Nitrogenous Bases?
FOUND IN DNA, RNA OR BOTH?
- Cytosine and uracil in RNA
- Cytosine and thymidine in DNA
T OR F?
RNA may have catalytic properties
_______is a ribonucleotide with three phosphates (high energy)
Different types of sub-units are capable of self-assembly.
WHAT EXPERIMENT PROVED THIS POINT?
- 1950s experiments show that TMV (Tobacco Mosaic virus)
- particles are capable of self assembly.
T OR F
PROKARYOTIC Ribosomal sub-units ARE KNOWN TO assemble spontaneously IN A STEP WISE MANOR?
- Components of the mature eukaryotic ribosomal sub-units require accessory proteins to assemble.
- THINK CHAPERONES.
OBJECTIVE OF A CHAPERONE?
GIVE ONE EXAMPLE!
- Help proteins reach proper folded state.
- Helps move across membranes
- Helps with heat shock
- E.coli GroEL protein is essential for the proper folding of other cellular proteins
IN AD, The ϒ-secretase can act at either of the two
cleavage sites of the APP, resulting in two different results.
NAME THEM AND WHAT WHICH IS BAD.
- AB40 AND AB 42
- Aβ 42 difference is that it has a tendency to spontaneously refold into different confirmations that contain more β-pleated
- sheets, and this is where the problem arises.
THE ENTIRE INVENTORY OF PROTEINS THAT IS PRODUCED BY AN ORGANISM. ALSO APPLIES TO THE INVENTORY OF ALL THE PROTIENS PRESENT IN A CELL, TISSUE OR ORGANELLE.
DEFINE SITE-DIRECTED MUTAGENESIS
A TECHNIQUE TO MODIFY A GENE IN A PREDETERMINED WAY SO AS TO PRODUCE A PROTEIN WITH A SPECIFICALLY ALTER AA SEQUENCE.
ON A 2D GEL RUN WHAT ARE THE TWO UNITS OF MEASUREMENT?
- pI...... isoelectric point.
PRINCIPAL ANIMAL ENERGY STORAGE PRODUCT ESPECIALLY IN LIVER AND MUSCLE
principal higher plant energy storage product with amylopectin
principal higher plant energy storage product with alpha amylose
mainly structural; nutrient it can break it down… Mammals who use as a food source lack enzymes to digest it but have rumen.
structural, possibly some minor barrier functions
structural extremely important in development.
Two alternating sugars usually one is an amino sugar
beta 1-4 and beta 1-4 or beta 1-3.
where would you find glycosaminoglycans?
extracellular material and spaces and around cells and connective tissue.
name for products that added sugar component of D-glucose
- A amylose
what starts unit is composed of NAG-NAM?
what starts unit is composed of NAG?