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Systematic search to produce information about market characterisitcs
systematic research condcted to aid marketings decisions
the art and science of gathering, organzing, analyzing, interpretying and presenting numberical data for the purpose of making a more effective decision
gathers, organizes, analyzes and presents numerical data
attempts to understand population characterisitcs based on data from a sample
a count of the entire population
a portion of or extract from the population
individual members of the sample
a measurable factor that changes
a measurable factor that does not change
the amount of dissimilarity
the property being studied is nonnumeric in nature
the property being studied can be reported numerically
variables used to describe or define the population being studied
information that has been collected for some other purpose
information gathered specifically for the research objectives at hand
presents no response options to the respondednt, expected to use his/her own words
- - "What were your impressions of the website?"
- - freedom to respond with own words
- - difficult to code and analyze
- - may give one word answers
- "can you think of anything more?"
- -"did you have any other thoughts/impressions about the website?"
- - more complete answers
- - difficult to code and analyze
provides respone options that can be answered quickly and easily
- "on your last visit, did you like or dislike the food at the red lobster?"
- -simple to code and analyze
- - oversimplifies response options?
miltiple catergory closed-ended
- "if you were to buy a DVD player tomorrow which brand would you most likely buy?
- (a) panasonic (b) sony etc
- - broad range
- - simple to anaylaze/administer
- - allow only one choice
- -may alert respdodnes to options the were unware of
uses a scale to measure a construct
unlabeled scaled-response question
- "on a scale of 1 to 7 how would you rate the red lobster on quality of food"
labeled scaled response question
"do you disagree strongly, disagree, agree, or agree strongly with the statement, "red lobster serves high quality food?"
concrete, tangible, verifiable (age, income, etc)
cannot be directly observed because they are mental contrsucts(attitude, intentions, opinions, etc)
designin questions to measure the subkjective properties of an object
categorical level of measurement
scales of measure, qualitiative variables ( eg m/f, yes/no). disctinct categorys
metric level of measurement
scales: used for measuring quantitative variables (age, income, how many children, etc)
Nominal scales (categorical, qualitative)
- -use only labels (type of dwelling, occipation, gender, yes/no)
- -least sophistacated (cannot perform advanced or sophistiacted stats with this data)
- -"check the brand you would most leikley consider purchasing:"
- -"do you recall seeing a delta airlines ad for carefree vacations in the past week?"
ordinal scales (categorical, qualitative)
- -"please rank each brand in terms of your preference (1 first choice, 2 2nd choice)
- -in your opinion would you say the prices at walmart are": higher than sears, about the same as sears, lower than sears"
- -rank order (indicate yoru first, second and third choice of brands)
- -realtive size differences among objects.(cant tell how far apart the descriptors are on the scale- dont posses distance or origin)
interval scales (metric)
- "indicate your degree of agreement with the following statement by circling the appropriate number: "
- "please rate pontiac firbired by checking the line that best corresponds to your evaluation of each item listed"
- -distance is known or assumed to be equal (3 to 4 is same as 4 to 5)
- -labels are on a continuum, equal distances apart for check lines
- -higher level of measurement
ratio scales (metric, quantitative)
- "Please indicate your age" __years
- "What is the probablity that you will use a lawyers services when you make a will? ___percent
- -true zero origin exists ($ spent, time taken, years of college education)
- -allows us to construct "ratios" when comparing results: "twice as heavy", three times as costly
- -most sophistacted
level of sophistication
nominal (lowest), ordinal, interval, ratio (highest)
modifited likert scale
asked to indicate their degree of agreement or disagreement on a symmetri agree-disagree scale for a series of statements
this is a general feeling toward an object that can bias responses to specific questions
respondents reply with checkmarks from a list of options (check all that apply) the researcher can sum the checks to get a measure of the construct
one in which the endpoints are indentified with the beginning and ending number of the scale (eg 1=very dissasitified, 5=very satisfied)
one in which the same respondednt respond in the same way to an identical or nearly idenctical quesiotn
the accuracy of the measurement a valid measure is on that is truthful
- summarize (imporatant characteristics)
- -get flavor of data, generalize sample,
generalize results of sample to target population that it represents
- median, mode, standard deviation (“SD”), range
- to describe the sample data matrix in such a way as to portray the
- “typical” respondent and to reveal the general pattern of
- used early in the analysis; become foundations for subsequent analysis.
- •“Inferential analysis” – generalize the results of the
- sample to the target population that it represents.
- the researcher makes conclusions about the population based on the sample
- hypothesis testing; estimating true population values based on sample
- •Used to test the difference between or among groups –
- are the groups really different on this variable?
- •For example: One group exposed to ad for Brand A; one
- group has not seen the ad. Variable of
- importance: purchase of brand. Are
- there real and significant differences between the two groups?
- •t-test for significant differences; analysis of variance
- •Used to determine systematic relationships among
- variables. “Associative analysis” investigates if and how two variables are related.
- •Analysis may indicate how strong the association and /or
- the direction (positive? negative?)
- •Techniques include cross-tabulations (“cross-tabs”) and
- to help the marketing researcher make predictions or forecasts about future
- analysis, time series analysis are examples of techniques.
- -what response is most typical? Which is the most
- frequent response?
- - •Goal: to report a single piece of
- information that describes the most typical response to a given question.
•“The value in a string of numbers that occurs MOST often.”
- •Expresses the value that lies in the middle of an ORDERED set of values. It is
- the value such that half the other
- values are greater than the median, and half are less than it.
- average value characterizing
- a set of numbers.
- a factor that causes or brings about a change
- money spent on advertising)
- a factor that is changed (by the independent variable) (e.g., sales)
- distribution/ Percentage Distribution
- Percentage Distribution
- Deviation, Range
•A tabulation of the number of times that each value appears in a particular set of values.
Measures of Variability – Range
distance between the minimum and the maximum value in an ordered set of values.
Measures of Variability – Standard Deviation (“SD”)
- -indicates the degree of variation in the values translated into a normal distribution.
± 1.96 SD =?
•indicates the limits within which 95% of the area under the curve lies
± 2.58 SD
•indicates the limits within which 99% of the area under the curve lies
1 Central Tendancy:
- 1 Mode
- 2 Frequency or percentage distribution
1 Central Tendancy:
- 1. Median
- 2. Cumulative percentage distribution
Intervel or Ratio
1 Central tendancy:
Values that are computed from a sample.
values that are computed from a complete census of the population
- •a set of procedures in which the sample size and sample
- statistics are used to make estimates of population parameters.
of using sample information to compute an interval that describes the range of a parameter such as the population mean (µ) or the population percentage (π).
The mean or percentage is derived from a sample, so it is the sample statistic.
•Standard Error (“SE”)
measure of the variability in the sampling distribution
Standard Error of the Mean
Standard Error of the Percentage
- P + Q = 100
The SE will be smaller for large sample sizes and larger with small sample sizes.
When is p x q maximum?
CI (95%) fo Std. error of mean =
- =Mean ±1.96 (SE)
CI (95%) for Std. Errof of % =
- =p ± 1.96 (SE)
Best estiamte tyhat the mena amount spent by US teens is 150/ week. 95% confident that population mean lies between 145.8 and 150
Best estimate that 67% of milwaukee residence have been to a brewers game at least once in past 12 weeks. 99% confident that the populatin percentage lies between 60% and 70%