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2010-04-08 00:47:46
Anatomy 2

Anatomy 2
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  1. The spinal cord consists of
    ascending and descending myelinated azons that carry neural signals to and from the brain
  2. cross section of spinal cord reveals
    h-shaped center area of gray matter with surrounding periphery white matter
  3. gray matter
    composed of mostly cell bodies and dendrites, it is the h-shape of a cross section of the spinal spinal cord
  4. white matter
    consists of myelinated axon, cross section of spinal cord
  5. spinal cord has ___ pairs of _________ nerves
    31, peripheral
  6. The nerves that enter the spinal cord on the dorsal side, and are formed from azons of unipolar sensory neurons
    dorsal roots
  7. the cell bodies of dorsal roots that are grouped together
    dorsal root ganglion
  8. the terminals of these sensory neurons form the dorsal arms of the spinal gray matter
    dorsal horns
  9. the nerves that enter the central side of the spinal cord, are formed from azons of multipolar motor neurons
    ventral roots
  10. ventral roots inside the spinal cord
    ventral horn
  11. a cluster of neurons outside the CNS
  12. a cluster of nuerons within the CNS
  13. at the posterior end of the spinal cord, a mass of loose spinal nerves
    cuada equina
  14. cervical nerves
    8, carry sensory and motor info from head ,nack,amrs
  15. thoracic nerves
    12, serve the torso
  16. lumbar nerves
    5, serve the lower back and legs
  17. sacral and coccygeal nerves
    5, 1, serve the backs of lower legs and genitals
  18. cranial nerves
    12, enter and exit the bottom of the brain
  19. this junction is where the sympathetic presynaptic and postsynaptic neurons meet
    sympathetic ganglion
  20. interconnected chain of ganglia, located lateral to the thoracic and lumbar areas of the spinal cord
    sympathetic ganglion chain
  21. the presynaptic neuron
    preganglionic neuron
  22. the postsynaptic neuron
    postganglionic neuron
  23. postganglionic neurons use
  24. all the preganglionic and postganglionic nurons of the autonomic nervous system use
  25. the five subdivisions of the brain
    • telencephalon
    • diencephalon
    • mesencephalon
    • metencephalon
    • myelencephalon
  26. the hindbrain is composed of three structures
    medulla , pons, cerebellum
  27. points of entry and exit for the cranial nerves
    pons, medulla
  28. found in the pons and medulla, made up of 100 nuclei that serve a wide range of functions ( increase alertness)
    reticular formation
  29. found in the pons and medulla,creats serotonin to be used in other parts of the brain
    raphe system
  30. pons is recognizable due to
    its ventral bugle on the brainstem since it in located where many sensory and motor axons crossover to serve the opposite side of the body
  31. located in the pons,produces norepinephrine for the rest of the brain
    locus coeruleus
  32. cerebellum is important for
    balance, motor coordination and the learning of movements
  33. the midbrain is
    superior to the hindbrain on the brainstem and surrounds the cerebral aqueduct, this is where dorsal refers to toward the back rather than the top of the head
  34. the dorsal part of the midbrain
  35. pair of bumps that is higher on the brainstem in the midbrain, plays a role in visual orienting ti the location of objects and visual tracking of objects
    superior culliculi
  36. the lower pair of bumps in the midbrain, it is used for auditory info to determine the location of an object
    inferior colliculi
  37. the ventral portion of the midbrain
  38. a cluster of cell bodies that surround the cerebral aqueduct, reduces the perception of pain
    periaqueductal gray
  39. the red nucleus and substantial nigra both interact with
    other motor related area of the cortex and basal ganglia to produc movement