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1. Describe the general functions of lymph system.
- •Aids in maintaining fluid and electrolyte balance
- •Immune response
- –identifies antigens, produces antibodies, inflammation, allergic response, etc.
- •Absorption of lipids
2. Describe the substances found in lymph.
Lymph is a clear, colorless fluid, similar to blood but with less proteins, more lipids, and electrolytes. It contains lymphocytes and macrophages.
3. Describe the formation of lymph.
Lymph is produced by osmosis moving excess interstitial fluid from the tissues of the body.
Describe the tissue layers of the various vessels that circulate lymph in the table below: a. lymph capillaries
are microscopic closed-ended tubes of endothelium (simple squamous epithelium) that lie near blood capillaries. The endothelial cells loosely overlap, allowing bacteria, cells and excess interstitial fluid to enter when pressure is high, and close when its low.
4b. lymph vessels
Medium tubes composed of three layers of tissue surrounding a lumen, that receive lymph from lymph capillaries, transporting it into and out of lymph nodes before emptying into a lymph trunk. They share traits with both arteries and veins.
4c. lymph trunks
same three layers of tissue of lymph vessels
4d. cisternae chyli
(an enlargement in the abdomen)
4e. lymph collecting ducts
receive lymph from the trunks and drain into a subclavian vein.
e. 1. right lymphatic duct
receives lymph from the right arm and right side of the head, neck, and thoracic cavity. It empties into the right subclavian vein.
e. 2. thoracic duct
receives lymph from below the diaphragm, left arm, left side of head, neck and thoracic cavity. It empties into the left subclavian vein.
5. Describe these lymphatic cells: a. natural killer cells
are lymphocytes that attack and destroy foreign cells and diseased host cells.
5b. T lymphocyte (T cells/killer, helper, suppressor, memory)
- –Helper T cells promote T cell action and defense mechanisms.
- –Suppressor T cells limit the attack on antigens.
- –Memory T cells (immunocompetent clones) descended from killer T cells.
5c. B lymphocyte (B cells/plasma, memory)
–Produce antigen receptors, antibodies, and memory cells
5d. macrophage (antigen-presenting cells)
are large matured phagocytes that aid in the immune response.
6. Describe the composition, location, and functions of Peyer's patches.
are lymph nodules embedded in the mucosa of the small intestine that filter antigens released during digestion.
7. Describe the composition, location, and functions of the lacteals
are enlarged lymph capillaries at the center of villi in the small intestine that absorb lipids.
8. Describe the structure, location and functions of the thymus.
- •An organ with epithelial tissues that develop lymphocytes and secretes hormones (thymopoietin and thymosins) to regulate their maturation into specific T-lymphocytes.
- •This organ is very large in the fetus, and child but after age 14 begins involution (shrinkage) and in elderly mostly composed of fatty and fibrous tissue.
9. Describe the compostion of lymph nodes
- are composed of acapsule with many septa dividingthe interior into numerous nodules.
- –nodules are masses of lymphocytesand macrophages embedded inreticular tissue.
- –lymph-filled sinuses are fed by many afferent lymph vessels and empty in to a few efferent vessels.
- –only organs that filter lymph
10. Describe the location and functions of lymph nodes
- •Lymph nodes filter lymph, phagocytize foreign matter and produce lymphocytes/macrophages.
- •Lymph nodes are found throughout the body in clusters.
11. Describe the composition, location, and functions of the tonsils.
- are partially encapsulated lymph nodules that filter antigens from food, liquids, and air found in oral and nasal cavities:
- –pharyngeal tonsils (pharynx)
- –palatine tonsils (dorsal margin oforal cavity)
- –lingual tonsils (base of tongue)
12. Describe the composition, location, and functions of the spleen.
- •The spleen is encapsulated and divided into nodules (like a lymph node) with blood-filled sinuses.
- •Location is inferior to diaphragm and dorsal to stomach on the left side.
- The functions include:
- –Hemopoeisis in the fetus
- –Acts as a blood reservoir, especially platelets
- –Recycles old and damaged erythrocytes
- –Filters blood to allow quick detection of antigens