CMST 2010 Chapter 4 terms

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CMST 2010 Chapter 4 terms
2012-02-14 20:22:19

Terms for Chapter 4
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  1. language
    a system comprised of vocabulary and rules of grammer that allow us to engage in verbal communication
  2. verbal symbols
    words or the vocabulary that makes up a langauge
  3. grammer
    the ruels that dictate the structer of language
  4. encoding
    the process of putting thoughts and feeligns into verbal symbols, nonverbal messages or both
  5. decoding
    the process of developing a thought based on hearing verbal symbols, observing nonverbal messages or both
  6. denotative meaning
    the literal conventional meaning of a verval symbol that most peole in a culture have agreed is the meaning of that symbol
  7. connotative meanign
    the meaning of a verbal symbole that is derived from our personal and subjective experience with that symbol
  8. concrete
    able to be seen, smelled tasted, touched or heard
  9. referent
    the thing a verbal symbol represents
  10. abstract
    not able to be seen, smelled tasted,touched, or heard
  11. framing theory
    a teory that argues that when we compare two unlike things in a figure of speech we are unconsciously influneced by this decision
  12. process of abstraction
    the ability to move up and down the ladder of abstraction from a specific to general acnd vice versa
  13. strategic ambiguity
    leaving out cues in a message on purpose to encourage multiple interpretations by others
  14. equivocation
    a type of ambiguity that involves choosing our words carefully to give a listenr a false impression without actually lying
  15. euphemism
    a milder or less direct word substituted for anothr word that is more blunt or negative
  16. idiom
    a word or phrase that has an understood meanign within a culture but whose meaning is not derived by exact translation
  17. phatic communication
    communication consisting of words and phrases that are used for interpersonal contact only and are not ment to be translated verbatim
  18. code-switching
    shifitng back and forth between lnaguages in the same conversation
  19. speech community
    a group of people who share norms about how to speak what to use and when where and why to speak
  20. symbolic interactionism theory
    the theroyt at our understanding of ourselves and of the world is shaped by our interactions with those around us
  21. linguistic determinism
    a theory that aruges that our language determins our ability to percieve and think about htings. if we don't have a word for something in our lanugae this theory predicts we wont think about it or notice it.
  22. linguistic relativity
    a theory that states that language influences our thinking but doesn't dertimen it. Thus, if we dont have a word ofr something in our language this theory predicts it will difficult, but not impossible, to think about it or notice it
  23. Saper-Whof hypothesis
    a theory that points to connections among culture, language and thought. in its storng form, this theory is known as linguistic determinism, and in its eak form it is knwn as linguistic relativity
  24. codability
    the ease with which a language can express a thought
  25. two-culture theory
    a theory that assets that sex operates in the same way as culture in establishing differnt ruels, norms and language pattersn for men and women
  26. static evaluation
    the tendency to speak and respond to someone today the same way we did in the past not recognizing that peole and relationships change over time
  27. polarization
    the tendency to use "either-or" language and speak of the word in extremes
  28. reification
    the tendency to respond to words or labels for thigns as though they were the things themselves
  29. lexical gaps
    experience tat are not named
  30. muted grouop theory
    theoryt aht explaines what happens to people whose experience are not well represented in verbl symbols and who have trouople articulating their thoughts and feeligns verbally because their language doesn't give them an adequate vocabulary
  31. sexist language
    language that is demeanign to one sex
  32. generic he
    the use of the masculine pronoun he to function generically when the subjet of the sentance is of unknown gender or incudes bothmen and women
  33. man-linked words
    words that include the word man but that are supposed to operate generically to incude women as well, such as mankind
  34. confirmation
    a response that acknowledges and supports another
  35. disconfirmation
    a response taht fails to acknowledge and support anotehr, leaving the person feeling ignored and disregarded
  36. perspective-taking
    acknowledging the viewpoints of those with whome we interact
  37. indexing
    avoding genrealizations by acknowledging the time frame in which we judge others and ourselves