rocks: materials of solid earth

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wsrdpc
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rocks: materials of solid earth
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2012-02-14 20:46:58
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rocks materials solid earth
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rocks: materials of the solid earth
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  1. 3 groups of rocks
    • igneous
    • sedimentary
    • metamorphic
  2. rock cycle
    allows us to see many interactions amoung the components and processes of the earth system
  3. basic cycle
    • 1. starts with magma melting to become molten rock
    • 2. magma cools and solidifies becoming igneous rock
    • 3. weathering process disintegrates & decomposes into sediments
    • 4. sediments move and comes to rest in places like oceans, flood plains, deseart basins, swamps and sand dunes
    • 5. goes through process to convert into rock
    • 6. rock becomes buried or involved in mountain building
    • 7. if melts completely becomes magma and restarts cycle but doesn't necessarily go in this order
  4. magma
    a body of molten rock found at depth, including any dissolved gases and crystals
  5. crystallization
    formation and growth of a crystalline solid from a liquid or gas
  6. igneous rock
    formed as magma cools and crystalizes
  7. lava
    molten rock that reaches the surface
  8. extrusive (volcanic) igneous rock
    formed when molten rock solidifies at the surface
  9. intrusive (plutonic) igneous rock
    formed when molten rock solidifies at depth
  10. large crystals in igneous rock
    formed when slow cooling of the rock like below the surface
  11. small inter grown crystals
    formed from instant cooling producing tiny shards of glass
  12. texture
    size shape and distribution of the particles that collectively constitute a rock
  13. fine grained texture
    formed rapidly at surface or as small masses within upper crust having vesicles (voids) left by gas bubbles
  14. vesicular texture
    those that have voids or small cavities that are created by escaping gases
  15. coasrse grained texture
    formed far below the surface having appearance of mass of inter grown crystal that are roughly equal in size large enough to identify the individual minerals
  16. porphyritic texture
    formed to start slowly then move to different environments having large crystals incased in matrix of small crystals
  17. glassy textures
    from volcanic eruptions when molten rock is rapidly cooled from unordered atoms that are frozen in place and from magmas having large amounts of silica; contain no crystals
  18. dark silicas
    iron and/or magnesium rick silicates relatively low in silica
  19. light silicates
    most abundant minlar group feldspars as well as quartz, muscovite, mica; conain greater amounts of silica as well as potassium, sodium and calcuim in large amounts
  20. granitic (felsic) rocks
    entirely light colored having granitic composition of quartz and potassium felspar; major part of continental crust
  21. basaltic (malfic) rock
    has substantial dark silicate mineral as well as rich in calcium, no quartz; basaltic composition, darker and denser than grantic
  22. andesitic (intermediate) rocks
    compositional group containing 25%+ dark silicate minerals; other dominate is plagioclase feldspar
  23. ultramafic rocks
    compositional group contains mostly olivine and pyroxene; entirely dark silicate minerals
  24. Bowen's Reaction Series
    illustates relationship between magma and minerals crystallizeing from it during formation of igneous rocks
  25. Bowen's reaction series sequence of crystalization
    • composition types - ultramafic, basaltic (mafic), andesitic (intermediate), granitic (felsic)
    • minerals - olivine, pyroxene, amphibote, biotite mica, potassium feldspar, muscovite mica, quartz
    • calcium rich before sodium rich
  26. crystal setting
    earlier formed minerals are denser than the liquid & sink toward the bottom
  27. magmatic differentiation
    formation of one or more secondary magmas from a single parent magma
  28. weathering
    the natural response of Earth's materials to a new environment transforming rock
  29. mechanical weathering
    physcial breaking up of rock
  30. chemical weathering
    altering what the rock is and changing it into a new substance
  31. 3 important physical processes breaks rocks into smaller fragments
    frost wedging, sheeting & biological activity
  32. frost wedging
    water works into cracks in rocks, freezes, expands & enlarges openings after many of these cycles it has browken the rock into pieces that tumble into talus slopes at the base of steep outcrop
  33. sheeting
    large masses of intrusive igneous rock exposed by erosian, entire slabs break loose like onion layers; repeated creates separation & exfoliation domes
  34. biological activity
    from activies of organisms creating fractures & wedging rock apart
  35. chemical weathering
    alters internal structure of minerals by removing and/or adding elements altering into stable substances for surface environment; water most important part of this
  36. carbon dioxide
    in water forms carbonic acid, the acid reacts with franites quartz and potassium feldspar destroying the crystalline structure
  37. solid particles
    detritus forming detrital sedimentary rocks
  38. soluble materials
    when back to solid called chemical sediment forming chemical sedimatry rocks
  39. conglomerate
    gravel sized particles if they are rounded
  40. breccia
    gravel sized particles if angular
  41. sandstone
    when sand sized grains prevail made of very fine grained sediment
  42. siltstone
    also fine grained difficult to differentiate from shale
  43. shale
    even smaller clay sized sediment very fine
  44. chemical sedimentry rocks
    form from solid products; derived from material carried to lakes and seas
  45. biochemical origin
    indirectly formed thru life processes of water dwelling organisms
  46. limestone
    most abundant of these composed of calcite, 90% biochemical
  47. coquina
    biochemical limestone; coarse rock made of cemented shells and shell fragments
  48. chalk
    soft, porous rock mostly of microscopic organisms
  49. travertine
    one example of inorganic limestone from chemical changes or high water temps increasing calcium carbonate
  50. evaporate deposits
    remaining deposits of salt deposition & seas gone
  51. lithification
    process that sediments transorm into solid sedimentary rocks
  52. compaction
    most common process of lithification; sediments accumulate over time the weight compress the deeper sediment reducing the pore space and creating rock
  53. cementation
    another imporant means of lithification; sediment is joined by water and cementing materials that go into the sediment; over the cement fills the open spaces joining the particles producing rock
  54. strata
    single most characteristic feature of sedimentary rock
  55. bedding planes
    separate strata; flat surfaces along which rocks marking end of one episode & begining of another
  56. fossils
    ice remains of prehistoric life most important inclusions found in sedimentary rock
  57. metamorphic rock
    produced from pre-existing igneous, sedimentary or other metamorphic rocks; everyone has a parent rock
  58. metamorphism
    to change forms; leads to change in mineralogy, texture and sometimes chemical composition
  59. settings that metamorphism takes place
    • 1. contact (thermal) change caused by rise in temperature with the host rock
    • 2. regional change during mountain building; large amount of rocks under direct pressure & high temps with large scale deformation
  60. metamorphism drives
    heat, pressure (stress) & chemically active fluids
  61. foliation
    any planer (nearly flat) arrangement of mineral grains or structural features within a rock layered or banded appearance
  62. non-foliated
    does not have uneven pressure the deformation is minimal & exhibits equidimensional crystals

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