Biology

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Author:
augustmoon76
ID:
135394
Filename:
Biology
Updated:
2012-02-27 15:13:16
Tags:
anatomy physiology chapter4 tissue
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Description:
Chapter 4 tissues
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  1. What are the 4 types of tissues?
    • Epithelial
    • Connective
    • Muscle
    • Neural
  2. What are the characteristics of epithelial tissue?
    • Consists of glands
    • is avascualar (without blood vessels)
  3. Where is epithelial tissue found?
    • Skin
    • Digestive tract
    • Respiratory tract
    • Body cavities
  4. How is the physical barrier formed?
    • Epithelial cells are tightly attached forming a physical barrier
    • *Connected with CAMs (cell adhesion molecules)
    • *Have tight junctions, gap junctions and desmosomes
  5. Epithelial cells are polar.
    True or false?
    True
  6. What are the microvilli and cilia for on the apical surface?
    • Microvilli-absorption
    • Cillia-movement of materials across the epithelial surface
  7. What is the name of the underlying surface of an epithelial cell?
    Basal
  8. What is the basal layer anchored to?
    A basement membrane (extracellular matrix) that consists of proteins
  9. What two types of tissues are held together by the basement membrane?
    Epithelial and connective
  10. What are the layers of epithelial tissue?
    • Simple: single layer
    • Stratified: two or more layers
  11. What are the three cell shapes found in epithelial tissue?
    • Squamous: flat, fried egg appearance
    • Cuboidal: cube
    • Columnar: rectangular w/nucleus towards basement membrane
  12. What is an example of simple columnar epithelium?
    Single layer of epithelial tissue found lining the digestive tract
  13. What is an example of stratified squamous epithelium?
    Multiple layers of epithelial tissue that can be found covering the surface of the skin and mouth
  14. What are the functions of epithelial tissue?
    • Protection
    • Regulates permeability
    • Detects changes in the environment
    • Specialized epithelial cells produce secretions
  15. What are the characteristics of connective tissue?
    • Deep tissue, found throughout the body
    • Very diverse
    • Consists of cells plus extracellular matrix/fluid
    • Vascular
  16. What are the functions of connective tissue?
    • Provides support and protection for internal organs/tissues
    • Transports materials (ex. nutrients)
    • Stores energy (fatty tissue)
    • Protects the body from macrophages
  17. What are the three types of connective tissue?
    • connective tissue proper
    • fluid connective tissue
    • supporting connective tissue
  18. what types of cells do the connective tissue proper consist of?
    fibroblasts, macrophages and adipocytes
  19. what three fibers do connective tissue proper consist of?
    • collagen fibers
    • elastic fibers
    • reticular fibers
  20. what substance is like a thick syrup that fills the spaces between the cells and fibers of connective tissue proper?
    ground substance (extracellular fluid)
  21. what are the two types of connective tissue proper?
    • loose connective tissue
    • dense connective tissue
  22. what are the characteristics of loose connective tissue?
    • functions in supporting epithelia and blood vessels, and in protecting organs
    • includes fatty tissue
  23. what are the characteristics of dense connective tissue?
    • strong tissue that functions in supporting bones, muscles and organs
    • includes tendons and ligaments
  24. what are the characteristics of fluid connective tissue?
    • consists of red/white blood cells
    • blood/lymph
  25. what are the characteristics of supporting connective tissue?
    consists of desne ground substance and tightly packed fibers
  26. what are the three types of cartilage found in supporting connective tissue?
    • hyaline
    • elastic
    • fibrocartilage
  27. what are the cells in supporting connective tissue that produce exteacellular matrix (cartilage)?
    chondrocytes

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