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What is a Hormone?
Chemicals manufactured in the body that effect the activity of other cells or organs
What is Growth?
To increase in size by addition of material
What is Puberty?
Physiological, morphological, and behavioral changes leading to reproductive maturity.
When is Puberty?
- Girls: 10-18 years old
- Boys: 12-20 years old
Secondary Sexual Characteristics
- Females: breast development, hips widen, fat deposition.
- Males: facial/chest hair, increased activity of sweat glands, growth of vocal cords.
- BOTH: axillary and pubic hair, skin change (acne).
Activational Effects of Hormones in Women
Menarche: onset of menstruation.
Activational Effects of Hormones in Men
Spermarche: onset of sperm production
Physical vs. Social Maturity
- Physical Maturity:
- -growth ends
- -sexually active and fertile (menarche/spermarche)
- -emphasis on reproductive effort
- Social Maturity
- -recognized as an 'adult' by other members of society
- -responsibilities and privelages
Rites of Passage
Cultures initiate rights of passage, to some members are not adults until rituals are initiated.
- Inbetween stage of puberty. Not a child, but not an adult.
- Going through the rituals together as a group fosters a sense of community (egalitarian, communal relationships but must follow societal norms).
4 Levels of Explanation: Why have puberty rites of passage?
- Proximate: cultural norm, a reason to celebrate
- Developmental: marks a mojor change in physical development
- Ultimate: access to mate, higher status- visible signal
- Phylogenetic: long period of childhood, adulthood is a milestone and momentous
- The completion of physical growth
- Sexually active and fertile
- Socially an adult
Adult Sexual Dimorphism
- Males: 1.5x body mass/skeletal mass
- Females: 2x body fat
Men are on average heavier and taller than women
Sex vs. Gender
- Sex is Biologically based (xx,xy)
- Gender is a social identity (choice)
"Frailty, thy name is women" -Hamlet
- -die at much higher/younger rates
- -have shorter life spans
- -fall victims to accidents and heart disease, homicide, suicide, and diseases.
- Anatomy and Physiology:
- -fat amount and distribution
- -men have higher metabolic rates
- -burn about 20% more energy at any given time than a female
- Evolutionary Biological Explanation:
- -males and females have different strategies for survival and mating
Are women frail?
Females are much more resiliant, even in utero a male is 4x more likely to be miscarried in the 1st trimester than a female
Increases a males life expectancy by atleast 13.5 years. this is because testosterone can be toxic to life expectancy as it leads to facilitating competition and agression.