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what doues test anxiety refer to?
- a combination of physiological,emotional,and cognitive components
- stress on taking an exam interferes with ones concentration,planning,and academic performance.
what is the definition of psychology?
the systematic,scientific study of behaviors and mental processes
what are behaviors?
observable actions or responses in both humans and animals
what are mental processes?
- not directly observable; refer to a wide range of complex mental processes, such as
what is the first goal of psychology?
to describe the different ways that the organisms behave
what is the second goal of psychology?
to explain the cause of behavior
what is the third goal of psychology?
to predict how organisms will behave in certain situations
what is the forth goal in psychology
to control an organisms behavior
what are some approaches to understanding behavior
what is biological approach
- how hormones,and nervous system interact with our environments to influence
- coping techniques
what is an example of biological approach
- runs in families,supported by the findings in identical twins,if one twin has it there is a 90% chance the other will show signs of autistic behavior
what does cognitive approach examine
how we procces,store and use information
- taking pictures and identifying the structures and functions of the living brain during performance of a variety of mental or cognitive processes such as
how organisms learn new behaviors or modify existing ones depends on whether events in their environments reward or punish these behaviors
albert banduras theory
- social cognitive theory (mental or cognitive processes in adition to observable behaviors)
- emphasises the social origins of behaviour in addition to the cognitive thought processes that influence human behaviour and functioning.
social cognitive approach
- behaviors are influenced by
- social aspects(environmental events and reinforcers)
- cognitive aspect(observation,imitation,and thought processes)
childhood experiences greatly influence the development of later personality traits and psychological problems
what is everything driven by
and what doues that influence
- unconcious fears,desires,and motivations
- thoughts,behaviors and the development of personality traits and psychological problens later in life
each individual has great freedom in directing his or her future (more a philosophy of life than a science of human behavior
cross- cultural approach
the influence of cultural/ethnic similarities and differences on psychological and social functioning
- elements of the mind
- basic elements,primarily sensations and perceptions,that make up our conscious mental experiences
functions of the mind
- perception is more than the sum of its parts
- how sensations are assembled into meaningful perspectual experiences
associates degree:community college
bachelors of art/science
- masters of art/science
- (dozens of other abbreviations)
- doctor of philosophy
- (PsyD: doctor of psychology)
- 4 to 5 years of postgraduate education
- PhD,PsyD, or EdD in psychology
- medical doctors(MD)
- several years in clinical training includes:
- diagnosing possible physical and neurological causes of abnormal behaviors
- treating those behaviors often with drugs
what percent of psychologists work as clinical or counseling psychologists in private practice or therapy settings
what percent of psychologists work in college/university settings
what percent of psychologists work in a variety of other kinds of jobs and career settings
what percent of psychologists work in industrial settings
what percent of psychologists work in secondary schools and other settings
clinical and counseling psychology
- assessment and treatment of people with psychological problems ex:
- study of:
- social interactions
- group behaviors
examines moral,emotional,and cognitive development throught a persons entire life
- includes areas of:
- human performance
- physical and chemical changes occur during stress,learning,and emotions
- how our genetic makeup,brain and nervous system interact with our environment and influence our behavior
how we process,store,and retrieve information and how cognitive processes influence our behaviors
focuses on the measurment of peoples abilities,skills,intelligence,personality,and abnorman behaviors
the relationship of people and their work environments