chris studdy guid

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chris studdy guid
2012-02-17 02:44:32

psychology chapter 1
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  1. what doues test anxiety refer to?
    • a combination of physiological,emotional,and cognitive components
    • stress on taking an exam interferes with ones concentration,planning,and academic performance.
  2. what is the definition of psychology?
    the systematic,scientific study of behaviors and mental processes
  3. what are behaviors?
    observable actions or responses in both humans and animals
  4. what are mental processes?
    • not directly observable; refer to a wide range of complex mental processes, such as
    • thinking
    • imagining
    • studying
    • dreaming
  5. what is the first goal of psychology?
    to describe the different ways that the organisms behave
  6. what is the second goal of psychology?
    to explain the cause of behavior
  7. what is the third goal of psychology?
    to predict how organisms will behave in certain situations
  8. what is the forth goal in psychology
    to control an organisms behavior
  9. what are some approaches to understanding behavior
    • biological
    • cognitive
    • behavioral
    • humanistic
    • cross-cultural
    • evolutionary
  10. what is biological approach
    • how hormones,and nervous system interact with our environments to influence
    • learning
    • personality
    • memory
    • motivation
    • emotion
    • coping techniques
  11. what is an example of biological approach
    • autism
    • runs in families,supported by the findings in identical twins,if one twin has it there is a 90% chance the other will show signs of autistic behavior
  12. what does cognitive approach examine
    how we procces,store and use information
  13. cognitive neuroscience
    • taking pictures and identifying the structures and functions of the living brain during performance of a variety of mental or cognitive processes such as
    • thinking
    • planning
    • naming
    • recognizing
  14. behavioral approach
    how organisms learn new behaviors or modify existing ones depends on whether events in their environments reward or punish these behaviors
  15. albert banduras theory
    • social cognitive theory (mental or cognitive processes in adition to observable behaviors)
    • emphasises the social origins of behaviour in addition to the cognitive thought processes that influence human behaviour and functioning.
  16. social cognitive approach
    • behaviors are influenced by
    • social aspects(environmental events and reinforcers)
    • cognitive aspect(observation,imitation,and thought processes)
  17. psychoanalystic approach
    childhood experiences greatly influence the development of later personality traits and psychological problems
  18. what is everything driven by
    and what doues that influence
    • unconcious fears,desires,and motivations
    • thoughts,behaviors and the development of personality traits and psychological problens later in life
  19. humanistic approach
    each individual has great freedom in directing his or her future (more a philosophy of life than a science of human behavior
  20. cross- cultural approach
    the influence of cultural/ethnic similarities and differences on psychological and social functioning
  21. structuralism
    • elements of the mind
    • basic elements,primarily sensations and perceptions,that make up our conscious mental experiences
  22. functionalism
    functions of the mind
  23. gestalt approach
    • perception is more than the sum of its parts
    • how sensations are assembled into meaningful perspectual experiences
  24. AA degree
    associates degree:community college
  25. BA/BS degree
    bachelors of art/science
  26. MA/MS degree
    • masters of art/science
    • (dozens of other abbreviations)
  27. PHD
    • doctor of philosophy
    • (PsyD: doctor of psychology)
  28. MD
    medical doctor
  29. psychologists
    • 4 to 5 years of postgraduate education
    • PhD,PsyD, or EdD in psychology
  30. psychiatrist
    • medical doctors(MD)
    • several years in clinical training includes:
    • diagnosing possible physical and neurological causes of abnormal behaviors
    • treating those behaviors often with drugs
  31. what percent of psychologists work as clinical or counseling psychologists in private practice or therapy settings
  32. what percent of psychologists work in college/university settings
  33. what percent of psychologists work in a variety of other kinds of jobs and career settings
  34. what percent of psychologists work in industrial settings
  35. what percent of psychologists work in secondary schools and other settings
  36. clinical and counseling psychology
    • assessment and treatment of people with psychological problems ex:
    • grief
    • anxiety
    • stress
  37. social psychology
    • study of:
    • social interactions
    • stereotypes
    • prejudices
    • attitudes
    • conformity
    • group behaviors
    • agression
  38. development psychology
    examines moral,emotional,and cognitive development throught a persons entire life
  39. experimental psychology
    • includes areas of:
    • sensation
    • perception
    • learning
    • human performance
    • motication
    • emotion
  40. biological psychology(psychobiology)
    • physical and chemical changes occur during stress,learning,and emotions
    • how our genetic makeup,brain and nervous system interact with our environment and influence our behavior
  41. cognitive psychology
    how we process,store,and retrieve information and how cognitive processes influence our behaviors
  42. psychometrics
    focuses on the measurment of peoples abilities,skills,intelligence,personality,and abnorman behaviors
  43. industrial/organizational psychology
    the relationship of people and their work environments