an enzyme complex in the inner membrane of a mitochondrion and the thylakoid membrane of a chloroplast that catalyzes the formation of ATP
tightly packed layer of cells that surrounds a vascular bundle in the
leaves of C4 plants, plants such as crabgrass and corn in which carbon
dioxide is fixed twice
the cycle that incorporates carbon dioxide in sugars during photosynthesis; uses chemical energy previously converted from light energy
crassulacean-acid metabolism; an adaptation for photosynthesis in arid conditions in which carbon dioxide entering open stomates at night is converted into organic acids that release carbon dioxide during the day when the
stomates are closed
an organism that derives energy from the oxidation of inorganic compounds, such as hydrogen sulfide (H2S)
an organism that must consume organic compounds for energy and carbon
the green pigments of plants and many microorganisms; converts light energy (via changes involving electrons) to chemical energy that is used in biological reactions
an organelle found in plants and photosynthetic protists; the site of photosynthesis
the energy-capturing reactions in photosynthesis
an environmental factor such as food, temperature, water, or sunlight that restricts growth, metabolism, or population size
nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate; a hydrogen carrier in photosynthesis
an organism that derives energy from light but requires a source of organic compounds
damage to the light-gathering process in photosynthesis; occurs when a chloroplast has absorbed too much light energy
a metabolic pathway in plants that consumes oxygen, produces carbon dioxide, generates no ATP, and reduces photosynthesis
any coloring matter or substance
the amount of change over a period of time
The colors in this hot spring are from ____, bacteria that obtain energy by oxidizing inorganic substances.
Which of the following is the smallest structure within the mechanism that creates photosynthesis in plants?
The light reactions of photosynthesis convert visible light into what?
The second part of photosynthesis, the Calvin cycle, uses ATP and NADPH energy to convert carbon dioxide into what?
In plants, much of the PGAL produced in photosynthesis is converted to which sugar, easily transported and used?
A decline in photosynthesis, caused by damaging molecules produced by a saturation of light energy, is known as what?
The graph shows that as temperature increases, the rate of photosynthesis does what?
increases, then declines
What effect does photorespiration have on photosynthesis?
it slows it down
What is CAM?
an adaptation of photosynthesis in desert plants
Why do scientists think that C3 plants are showing increased growth in many parts of the world?
Increased levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere favor their growth
Chemoautotrophs fix ____, usually with the Calvin cycle, using a variety of energy sources
Chemoautotrophs usually get their energy from an inorganic mineral such as ____.
In which of the following environments would you be most likely to find chemoautotrophs?
in a deep-sea volcanic vent
What role do chemoautotrophs play in turning this stream water, polluted by a copper mine, a brown color?
They oxidize copper ions in the mine drainage.
Nitrogen-oxidizing bacteria contribute to ____ growth by oxidizing ammonium ions to nitrite ions and nitrite to nitrate ions, which are more readily absorbed.
Bacteria that use CO2 as their source of carbon and oxidize inorganic substances to obtain energy are known as ____.
What do photoautotrophic cells use to absorb visible light?
The reactions that produce PGAL are represented by which part of the figure?
the Calvin cycle
What are the forms of chemical energy created during photosynthesis before the Calvin cycle?
ATP and NADPH
Why does the Calvin cycle not operate at night?
not enough CO2 is available
C3 plants tend to grow best between which of the following temperature ranges?
20° C to 30°C
What element can interfere with carbon fixation?
What is a primary difference between C3 and C4 plants?
C3 plants have one system of carbon fixation, while C4 plants have two systems of carbon fixation.
Which of the following provides the most energy?
How do chemoautotrophs help plants?
They oxidize ammonium ions to nitrates, which plants use.