Chp 4

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  1. ATP synthetase
    an enzyme complex in the inner membrane of a mitochondrion and the thylakoid membrane of a chloroplast that catalyzes the formation of ATP
  2. bundle sheath
    • a
    • tightly packed layer of cells that surrounds a vascular bundle in the
    • leaves of C4 plants, plants such as crabgrass and corn in which carbon
    • dioxide is fixed twice
  3. Calvin cycle
    the cycle that incorporates carbon dioxide in sugars during photosynthesis; uses chemical energy previously converted from light energy
  4. CAM
    • crassulacean-acid metabolism; an adaptation for photosynthesis in arid conditions in which carbon dioxide entering open stomates at night is converted into organic acids that release carbon dioxide during the day when the
    • stomates are closed
  5. chemoautotroph
    an organism that derives energy from the oxidation of inorganic compounds, such as hydrogen sulfide (H2S)
  6. chemoheterotroph
    an organism that must consume organic compounds for energy and carbon
  7. chlorophyll
    the green pigments of plants and many microorganisms; converts light energy (via changes involving electrons) to chemical energy that is used in biological reactions
  8. chloroplast
    an organelle found in plants and photosynthetic protists; the site of photosynthesis
  9. light reactions
    the energy-capturing reactions in photosynthesis
  10. limiting factor
    an environmental factor such as food, temperature, water, or sunlight that restricts growth, metabolism, or population size
  11. NADP
    nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate; a hydrogen carrier in photosynthesis
  12. photoheterotroph
    an organism that derives energy from light but requires a source of organic compounds
  13. photoinhibition
    damage to the light-gathering process in photosynthesis; occurs when a chloroplast has absorbed too much light energy
  14. photorespiration
    a metabolic pathway in plants that consumes oxygen, produces carbon dioxide, generates no ATP, and reduces photosynthesis
  15. pigment
    any coloring matter or substance
  16. rate
    the amount of change over a period of time
  17. The colors in this hot spring are from ____, bacteria that obtain energy by oxidizing inorganic substances. Image Upload 1
  18. Which of the following is the smallest structure within the mechanism that creates photosynthesis in plants?
    the granum
  19. The light reactions of photosynthesis convert visible light into what?
    chemical energy
  20. The second part of photosynthesis, the Calvin cycle, uses ATP and NADPH energy to convert carbon dioxide into what?
  21. In plants, much of the PGAL produced in photosynthesis is converted to which sugar, easily transported and used?
  22. A decline in photosynthesis, caused by damaging molecules produced by a saturation of light energy, is known as what?
  23. The graph shows that as temperature increases, the rate of photosynthesis does what?
    Image Upload 2
    increases, then declines
  24. What effect does photorespiration have on photosynthesis?
    it slows it down
  25. What is CAM?
    an adaptation of photosynthesis in desert plants
  26. Why do scientists think that C3 plants are showing increased growth in many parts of the world?
    Increased levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere favor their growth
  27. Chemoautotrophs fix ____, usually with the Calvin cycle, using a variety of energy sources
    carbon dioxide
  28. Chemoautotrophs usually get their energy from an inorganic mineral such as ____.
  29. In which of the following environments would you be most likely to find chemoautotrophs?
    in a deep-sea volcanic vent
  30. What role do chemoautotrophs play in turning this stream water, polluted by a copper mine, a brown color?
    Image Upload 3
    They oxidize copper ions in the mine drainage.
  31. Nitrogen-oxidizing bacteria contribute to ____ growth by oxidizing ammonium ions to nitrite ions and nitrite to nitrate ions, which are more readily absorbed.
  32. Bacteria that use CO2 as their source of carbon and oxidize inorganic substances to obtain energy are known as ____.
  33. What do photoautotrophic cells use to absorb visible light?
  34. The reactions that produce PGAL are represented by which part of the figure?
    Image Upload 4
    the Calvin cycle
  35. What are the forms of chemical energy created during photosynthesis before the Calvin cycle?
    ATP and NADPH
  36. Why does the Calvin cycle not operate at night?
    not enough CO2 is available
  37. C3 plants tend to grow best between which of the following temperature ranges?
    20° C to 30°C
  38. What element can interfere with carbon fixation?
  39. What is a primary difference between C3 and C4 plants?
    C3 plants have one system of carbon fixation, while C4 plants have two systems of carbon fixation.
  40. Which of the following provides the most energy?
  41. How do chemoautotrophs help plants?
    They oxidize ammonium ions to nitrates, which plants use.
Card Set
Chp 4
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