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What are the three areas of Ethics?
- Normative Ethics
- Applied Ethics
What is the Nature of the question that meta-ethics seeks to answer
- Meta-Ethics questions ethics its self
- questioning morality
What is the nature of the question that normative ethics seeks to answer?
- What is the correct behavior to display
- Normative ethics formulates principals to guide actions
What is the nature of the question that Applied ethics seeks to answer?
looks at mooral situation and reviews consequences
What constituttes an argument?
- A set of statements that reflects an inference
What makes an argument vaild?
Correct logistical form (no matter if the premises are true)
What makes an argument sound
- Correct logistical form AND
- TRUE PREMISES
Does X IMPLY Y?
Statement X guarentees Statement Y
What makes two statements Compatible?
Can two statements be true at the same time (doesn't matter if they are true or not)
What makes two statements comsistant
Both statments are true at the same time and are true?
What is the Minimum conception of moratlity?
Morality is the effort to guide one's conduct by reason while giving equal weight to the intrest of each individual affected by one's decision
Thinking about all that maybe affected by your decisions
The relationship between providing equal concideration of people's interests and treating people the same
Must balance feelings and reasons
Impartial consideration does ont entail = treatment
What do Moral realist think about moral properties?
There are properties to morality which defines whether it the action is right or wrong.
What is the difference between Moral Realism versus Moral skepticim?
- Moral realist rely on moral properties
- Moral skeptic say there are not moral properties
What do moral skeptics think about moral properties
There are not properties for right or wrongness
What is the difference between Moral Relativism and Moral Nihilism?
- Moral Relativist say things CAN be True or False
- Moral Nihilist says things CAN"T be True or False
What is the stance of a Moral Realist (Moral objectivism)
Moral claims can by objectively (Or universally) true or false
Some moral claims are true
What is the stance of Moral nihilism?
They can't True or False (Which automatically deletes the argument)
What are the two types of moral realism (Objectivism)?
- The Divine Command Theory
- The theory of Natural Law
What are the two types of Moral Skepticism?
- Ethical Relativism
- Moral nihilism
What athe the two types of Ethical relativism?
- Cultural relativism
- Simple subjectivism
What are the two types of Ethical Subjectivism
- Simple Subjectivism
What athe the two types of Moral nihilism?
- Error theory
- Tmotivism (Expressivism)
What is the argument for Cultural Relativism
- P. Different cultures have dfferent moral codes
- CThereis not objective truth in morality right and wrong are onlly matters of opinion which varies from culture to culture..
How do Simple Subjectivism and Emotivism relate?
- They both come from personal feeling.
- Simple subjectivism- if you agree or disagree with a statement
- Emotivism-Boo or Yeah
Why does this argument fail?
Geogarphy has no objective truth, so you can't say one view is right or wrong
Therefore you can not say one culture is wrong or bad
If Cultural relativism is true then...Three things
- 1 Can't say another customs ar morally inferior to our own
- 2 We can't criticize our own society-which prevents change-b/c you could never give any evidence that something is better
- 3 The idea of moral progress is called into doubt
Lesson to learn from Cultural relativism-inregards to how each expresses values
- Cultures have same values but different ways of completing it
- EX: Honoring dead= eating vs. cremating
What does ethical subjectivism
Moral opinions are based upon feelings and personal beliefs and nothing more.
What is Simple Subjectivism?
Moral claims are T or F based on an individual's standards
How does simple subjectivism relate to ethical subjectivism??
- ethical subjectivism bases moral opinions on feelings and beliefs
- Simple subjectivism-boils to what you approve of or disapprove of
What are the Problematic Implications of simple subjectivism?
- 1 Cannot account for moral disagreement/agreement
- 2 Makes the practice of correct moral judgements too easy
- 3 Implies we are alway right/infalliable
What is Emotivism?
- Moral claims are intended only to express an individual's attitude
- Preserves Compatibility
How does Emotivism relate to ethical subjectivism?
- ethical subjectivsm basses moral opinion on feeling
- Emotivism boos or yeahs statement
- Neither can be true nor false
How is emotivism similar to Simple subjectivism
- Both ethical subjectivism
- Both are simply stating a matter of personal opinion
How is emotivism different to simple subjectivism?
- Emotivism-Can't be true or false
- Simple Subjectivism- can be true or false
- Can't Critisize anyone's moral judgement...
- Emo-just prefrences, can't be false
- SS-is the belief and always true (if they really believe it )
How is emotivism similar to cultural relativism?
- They are both Moral Skepticism
- (Inference on Moral Skepticiam def-asking teacher)
How is emotivism different to cultural reativism?
- Emo-personal belifs
- CR- Beliefs based on what culture believes
- Emo-Can't be true or false
- CR- can be true or false
Problematic implication with Emotivism
- Specific words draw out different emotions
- Can change your mind
- Positive: Reconsider position
- Negative: flip flop
What does Rachels say in response to the suggestion that there are only two viable positionns with respect to the status of moralily?
- They say that there is a third option
- 1There are no moral facts
- 2 Facts about morality are as real as table salt
- **3Moral trues based upon REASON-Truth of Reason (Inbetween the first two on a scale)
Mackie what is his position?
Moral reals vs skeptisim
- There are No Moral objective facts in the world
- Ethical statements/claims aren't meaning less, but are false
How is Mackie's position similar or different to cultural relativism?
- Cultural relativism believe there are objective fact, Mackie thinks there are none
- Both think they can be False
How is Mackie's position similar to difffernt to Simple Subjectivism?
- SS- There are objects facts to be found, Mackie there are no objects to be Found
- Both think they can be false
How is Mackie's position similar or different to Emotivism?
- Both think there are no moral facts in the world
- Emotivism- CAN"T be True or False
What is the argument from relativity?
- P1 There are variations taht exist in moral codes from one society to another
- P2 Variation in Moral Codes from one period to another
- P3 Variation in moral beliefs in groups and classes w/in a complex community
- C The best explination of variation is that these variations reflect different ways of life (as opposed to thinking different perception of objective values)
What are the implication of the argument of relativity?
- None of the P converge: suggestly there are no facts.
- They would converge if the were supported by facts
What is the argument for Queerness?
- P1 If there were objective oral values then we would expect moral properties/qualities in the world
- P2 Properties would be strange unlike anyother property in the universe
- P3 If there are objective moral philosophy we would need dtsome sort of seperation faculty to detect them
- P4 We don't have this faculty______________________
- C1 Sincce we don't have this faculty (Sence) there are not moral properties in the world
- C2 No moral properties means there are no moral values
What are the imiplication for the argument for queerness?
- You can't access them so they don't exist
- You can't test and verify if they exist so they don't exist
- We don't have a sense for it so it doesn't exist
Hume-Why morality cannot be derived solely from reason?
- Because there has to be something else to connet them.
- You can't go from ought/is
What does "Deriving moraily from nature" mean?
Everything has a purpose and in doing that function it is being moral, when it is used for others things its is considered immoral
What is wrong in the theory of "deriving morality from nature"
Anything that is not the majority in nature is immoral: Red Heads, left handed people, Homosexuality.
What does the Divine Command theory say?
- The motivation from doing right is the threat of Heaven vs. Hell
- Something is right or wrong because God says it is
Where does Divine command theory compare to moral realism skepticism debate?
Moral realism because they can be universally true or false
What is the first interpretation of the Divine Command Theory?
- What is right is right because God commands it
- God is the AUTHOR of Morality
What are the problem with the first interpretation of the Divine Command Theory?
- 1. This makes morality a mystery.-How would commanding X make it right?
- 2. It makes God's commnds arbitrary
- 3. "God is Good" becomes meaninless-Anything God says is good then he cannot say he is good
- 4. Provided the wrongness for considering an act wrong
What is the second Interpretation of the Divine Command Theory?
- God commands what is right, because it is right
- God is the GUIDE to morality
What are the problems with the second interpretation of the Divine Command theory?
- Nothing is wrong until God say it is.
- This implies wrong reason:not bc it causes harm, but bc God said so..
Divine Command Theory-Is God the Author of Morality?
- #1 Yes
- #2 No he is the guide-he make a choise about things that already exist
Divine Command Theory-Are there moral principals?
- #1 No
- #2 Yes bc God had to choose and something must make them good or evil, a Good God chooses what he decided to command
Can the First and Second interpretations of the Divine Command Theory be true at the same time?
No because God can't be the Author and the Guide of morality. There can't be moral principals and no moral Principals at the same time
What does the Theory of Natural Law say?
- Natural law (Moral law=Morality)
- Is that part of th eeternal law what applies to human choices/action/behaviors
What is different between Natural law and divine command theory?
- Morality is natural lay not divine lay, you don't have to be religous to be moral.
- Divine law governs internal behavior
- Natural law govern all other behaviors
- Natural law is Morality
- Divine -morality comes in divine law
What are the three components of Natural Law?
- 1.The world has rational order which has purpose and values built in
- 2. Everything has a purpose and a natural way of acting
- 3. The right thing to do is whatever action has the best reason to back it up.
What is Aquinas' view on The Law
Law-God has eternal reasons which ordains laws directing all thing to act for the good of the community of God's creation--the universe
What is Aquinas' definition of Natural law?
- Moral law-Morality
- THe part of the eternal law athat applies to the human choices/ action/behaviors
What is Aquinas' view on Human law?
civil law- created by humans and are specific fro a specific society
What is Aquinas' view on eternal law?
Eternal law is that God gave us eternal reason, so that we could figure out things beyond his commandments