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Whats the three areas of ethics?
B. Mormative Ethics
C. Applied ethics
Whats the nature of the questions that metaethics seeks to answer?
Questioning morality/questioning ethics itself
What is the nature of the questions that Normative ethics seeks to answer?
It is looking for what is the correct behavior for a character to display.
What is the nature of the questions that Applied ethics seeks to answer?
Applying normative theories to something.
what constitutes an argument?
set of statements that reflects an inference.
What makes an argument Valid?
Correct logistical form no matter if the premises are correct or true.
What makes an argument sound?
correct logitically form and TRUE premises
What does compatibilty mean?
can two statments be true at the same time, doesnt matter if they are true or not
What is consistency?
Both statements are compatibility and true, both happen at the same time
What is the concept of implication?
When X gurantees Y.
What does the minimum conception on morality say?
the effort to guide one's conduct by reason while giving equal weight to the interest of each individual affected by ones decision.
what is moral realism?
(moral objectivism)moral claims that can be objectively (or universally)true or false. ( some moral claims are true)
whats the relationship between providing equal consideration of peoples interest and treating people the same?
You have to balance feelings and reason. Partial consideration does not intail equal treatment.
What are the two types of moral realism?
A. Divine command theory
B. The theory of natrual law
what are the two types of moral skepticism?
A. Ethical Relatvism
B. Moral Nihilism
What are the two kinds of ethical relativism?
A. Cultural relatvism
B. Simple subjectivism
What are two kinds fo moral nihilism?
- A. error Theory
- B. Emotivism (expressivism)
What does cultural relatvism say?
what moral claims are true or false on the basis of whether it correctly reports a particular cultures standards.
What is the cultural difference argument?
P. Different cultures have different moral codes.
C. there is no objective truth in morality. Right and wrong are only matters of opnion and opnions vary culture to culture.
why does it fail?
- It fails because (C)geography has no objective truth and geography is merely cultural relative.
- (P) different cultures have different beliefs about geography.
If cultural relativism is true what are the three statement they believe? (three things)
- 1. We can no longer say that the customs of other societies are morally inferior to our own.
- 2. we cannot criticize the moral code of our society.
- 3. there is no such thing as moral progress.
Values that can be learned from cultural relativism?
That cultures values.. Just different ways of expressing them.
What is ethical Subjectivism?
Moral opnions are based on feelings and nothing more.
What is the two version of ethical subjectivism?
- Simple Subjectivism
What is Simple Subjectivism?
moral claims that are true or false on the basis of whether they are correctly report on a particular individuals standards.
How does simple subjectivism relate to ethical subjectivism?
- Ethical subjectivism is based on personal feelings.
- Simple subjuectivism is on a basis on whether what you aprrove of or disapprove of.
What are the promblematic implications of simple subjectivism?
- it cannot account for moral disagreement/agreement.
- makes the practice of making correct moral judgements way too easy.
- implies we are infallible
What is Emotivism?
Moral claims are intended only to express an individuals attitudes.
Expression of attitude, there is a loss of rationality andf how you get intenede results is lost.
How does emotivism relate to ethical subjectivism?
- Ethical sub.: based on personal feelings.
- Emotivism: boo's or ya's statment. Neither can be true of false.
How does emotivism similar and different than simple subjectivism?
Similar: both are simply stating a matter of personal opnion.
Different: simple subjectivism can be true or false and emotivism can neither be true or false.
How is emotivism similar and different from cultural relativism?
- Similar: moral claims
- Difference: emotivism is personal beliefs, can not be true of flase and cultural relativism is a cultures beliefs, can be true or false.
What is emovitism problematic implications?
Specific words draw out different emotions which means youo can change your mind and reconsider and flip flop your decisons.
What is moral skepticism?
no properties fro right or wrongness, no moral facts in the world
What do moral realist think about properties?
there are properties to guide morality and define wether tis rgith or wrong.
What do moral skeptics think about properties?
There are no properties that guide our moral judgement.
Whats the stance of moral Nihilism?
They cant be true or false
How do simple subjectivism and emotivism relate?
they both come out of ethical subjectivism; comes from personal feelings.
What rachels says in response to the suggestion that there are only two viable positions with respect to the status of morality?
- He says there is a third option.
- 1. there are moral facts
- 2. our values are nothing more than the expression of subjective feelings.
- 3. there are moral trues based on reason-truth of reason (inbetween the first two in the scale)
What is Mackie's positioon?
- Mackie is an error theorist.
- There is no moral objective facts in the world.
- Ethical statments and claims arent meaninless, but are false.
What is the argument from relativity?
- P1. there are variations that exist in moral codes from one society to another
- P2. there are variations that exist in moral codes from one time period to another.
- P3. There are variations that exist between different groups and classes within a complex community
C. The best explanation of this is that these variations reflects different ways of life (as opposed to different perceptions of objective values.)
What is the argument for queerness?
- P1. if there were objective moral values that we would expect there to be moral properties or qualitiews in the world.
- P2. These properties would be of a strong sort, unlike any other properties in the universe.
- P3. if there were objective moral properties then we would need some sort of seperate factulty to detect them.
- C1. There are no moral properties in the world.
- C2. Theres no such thing as objective moral values.
Why does Hume believe morality can not be solely derived from reason?
- because prose are all 'is' statments
- therefore leads to a conclusion that states a normative claim of 'ought/should'
The problem of deriving ought from is.....
- P1. moral statments/judgements are able, on their own, to motivate those who make them.
- P2. Beliefs pn their own, are never able to motivate those who hold them.
C. moral judgements aren't beliefs.
What does the phrase deriving moralityb from nature mean?
everything has a purpose and in doign that function it is being moral, when it is used for toher things it is considered immoral or unnatural
What is wrong with deriving morality from nature theory?
That anything that is not the majority in majority in nature is wrong.
What is the divine command theory?
- the motivation for doign what is right is the threat of heaven vs. hell.
- Somethign is right or wrong cause god says it is
what is the first interpretation for the Divine command theory?
1. what is right is right because God commands it. (God is the author of morality
What is the problematic implications with the first interpretation of divine command theory?
- 1. how does/would commanding x, makie it right?
- 2. this interpretation makes Gods commands arbitrary.
- 3.God is good is meaningless
- 4. Provides the wrong reasons for torturing being wrong.
- God is the author of morality
What is the second interpretation of the Divine commad theroy?
God commands what is right because it is right.
What is the problematic implications of the second interpretation of divine command theory?
- that nothing is wrong or right until God commands it.
- This implies wrong reason: not because it causes harm but because God said so.
- God is the quide to morality because God is good
The interpretations of the Divine command theory can they be true at the same time?
Both can not be true at the same time. Because he cannot be the author and the guide for us at the same time.
What is the theory of natural law?
part of the the eternal law that applies to human choices/actions/behavior.Humans access the natural law (morality) through reason.
What are the three components of natural law?
- 1.It rest on a particular view of the world. The world has rational order with values and purposes built into its very nature.
- 2. laws of nature it describes how things are and how things ought to be.
- 3. what we should do are laws of reason, which we are able to grasp because God has given them to us.
What is aquinas's view on natural law?
God's eternal reasons ordains laws directing all things to act fpr the good of the community of God's creation namely, the universe.
What is human laws?
(civil law) human created laws that seek to apply the natural law to specific circumstances of the society of which we live.
what is divine law?
- it is laws that are revealed through the scripture.
- Old law-old testament
- New law-teachings of jesus.