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What is a Deductive Arguement?
A Deductive Argument is an argument incorporating the claim that it is IMPOSSIBLE for the conclusion to be false, given that the premises are true. Involve NECESSARY REASONING. Claims nothing new.
"Given the premises are true, the conclusion would have to be true"
What is an Inductive Argument?
An Inductive Argument is an argument incorporating the claim that it is IMPROBABLE that the conclusion be false given that the premises are true. Involves PROBABILISTIC REASONING. Claims something more.
"Given the premises are true, the conclusion is probably true"
What are the three features to help detect if an arguement is inductive or deductive?
- 1) Indicator words
- 2) Inferential link between premises/conclusion
- 3) styles/forms of argumentation (categories)
What are the 6 Deductive Categories?
- 1) Deductive by Mathematics
- 2) Deductive by Definition
- 3) Deductive by Categorical Syllogism
- 4) Deductive by Hypothetical Syllogism
- 5) Deductive by Disjunctive
- 6) Deductive by Follow Necessary
What is a Syllogism? And how can you breakdown the 3 types of syllogisms by their qualifiers and conditional?
A syllogism is an argument with EXACTLY TWO premises and ONE conclusion.
The 3 syllogisms are: Categorical, Hypothetical and Disjunctive.
- 1) Categorical: all, no, some
- 2) Hypothetical: if, then
- 3) Disjunctive: either, or
- 1) Categorical: each
- 2) Hypothetical: at least
- 3) Disjunctive: only one
What is Deuctive by Mathematics?
EXPLICITYLY employs math concepts (NOT statistics)
the conclusion depends on some purely arithmetic or geometric computation or measurement.
What is Deductive by Definition?
- Conclusion/claim SOLELY depends on Definition(s).
- -Only & totally defined in conclusion
What is Deductive by Categorical Syllogism?
"All," "no," or "some" in EACH statement. Can be a combination of the three, but all 3 words MUST somehow be in EACH statement.
After determining if the argument is a Categorical Syllogism, look at the structure and make sure that the use of "all, no, some" work with each other.
What is Hypothetical Syllogism?
If, Then in AT LEAST ONE premise.
If, then = conditional statement, "if" is antecedent and "then" is consequent
If, then doesn't necessarily need to be in the sentence but the relationship should be clearly defined as such.
What is Deductive by Disjunctive?
Either, Or in ONLY ONE premise.
What is Deductive by Follow Necessary?
by way of INFERENTIAL LINK
Not of the 5 specific categories, the "catch all" deductive category.
If the arguement doesn't fit in the other 5 categories, check if it's a follow necessary argument. If not, check if it's inductive.
What are the 6 Inductive Categories?
- 1) Inductive by Prediction
- 2) Inductive by Analogy
- 3) Inductive by Generalization
- 4) Inductive by Authority
- 5) Inductive by Signs
- 6) Inductive by Causal Inference
What is Inductive by Prediction?
- - future oriented ONLY (not the past)
- - There may be "predictive statements" - but put it in the premise/conclusion format and find otu if the predictive statement is the conclusion - if it is, then it's Inductive by Prediction. Otherwise, figure out what category the argument fits under
- - this category relies on other inductive ategories. Need to know what the prediction is based on. (i.e. Inductive by Prediction of Analogy)
What is Inductive by Analogy?
COMPARISON 1-to-1 or a few-to-1
- - comparison of similar attributes
- - be careful with # of analogies, if comparisons get to be too much, it can easily turn into a generalization, because it can turn into a statistical reasoning argument
What is Inductive by Generalization?
COMPARE/ASSOCIATION (a few to group/rest) or (many/most to one/few)
- - The larger the sample set, & random the set, the stronger the statistic
- - goes hand in hand with analogy but still different
What is Inductive by Authority?
"SOLEY relies on SO&SO saying so"
- - doesn't have to be an expert but you trust their word
- - if statements claim they're an expert or they cite the expert's claim, it's an authority statement.
What is Inductive by Signs?
"SOLELY relies on SIGN saying so"
- - no omen, only physical signs
- - think store hours, trusting they'll open on time, but not always
What is Inductive by Causal Inference?
Cause to effect or effect to cause
- - if you do this, this will result
- - the deductive version of this, is seeing the effects, and determining the cause
- - this is inductive's version of deductive by follow necessary
What are the factors to help alleviate conflict between inductive and deductive statements by order of importance?
- 1) Arguments in which the premises provide absolute support for the conclusion. Such arguments are always deductive.
- 2) Arguments having a specific deductive character or form (e.g. categorical syllogism). This factor is often of equal importance to the first, and, when present, it provides a clear-cut indication that the argument is deductive
- 3) Arguments having a specific inductive character or form (e.g. a prediction). Arguments of this sort are nearly always best interpreted as inductive
- 4) Arguments containing inductive indicator language (e.g. "it probably follows that...). Since arguers raely try to make their argument appear weaker than it really is, such language can usually be trusted. But if this language conflicts with one of the first two factors, it should be ignored.
- 5) Arguments containing deductive indicator language (e.g. "it necessarily follows that...). Arguers occasionally use such language for rhetorical purposes, to make their argument appear stronger than it really is, so such language should be evaluated carefully.
- 6) Arguments in which the premises provide only probable support for the conclusion. This is the least important factor, and if it conflicts with any of the earlier ones, it should probably be ignored.
What is a valid deductive argument?
An argument in which it is impossible for the conclusion to be false given that the premises are true. In these arguments the conclusion follows with strict necessity from the premises.
What is an invalid deductive argument?
Is a deductive argument which is IS possible for the conclusion to be false given that the premises are true.
How is validity determined?
In general, validity is not something that is uniformly determined by the actual truth or falsity of the premises and conclusion.
Validity is determined by the relationship between premises and conclusion.
The question is not whether the premises and conclusion are true or false, but whether the premises support the conclusion
What is the definition of an argument?
In its most basic form, is a group of statements, one or more of which (the premises) are claimed to provide support for, or reasons to believe, one of the others (the conclusion).
What are some conclusion indicators?
Therefore, Accordingly, Entails that, Wherefore, We may conclude, Hence, Thus, It must be that, It follows that, Consequently, For this reason, Implies that, We may infer, So, As a result.
What are some premise indicators?
Since, In that, Seeing that, As indicated by, May be inferred from, From the reason that, Because, As in as much as, Given that, Owing to.
What is an unsound invalid deductive argument?
Is an argument that does not have all true premises (unsound), structurally weak (invalid) and has necessary reasoning statements (deductive).
What is a sound valid deductive argument?
Is an argument that has all true premises (sound), is structurally strong (valid) and has necessary reasoning statements (deductive).
What is an unsound valid deductive argument?
Is an argument that does not have all true premises (unsound), is structurally strong (valid) and has necessary reasoning statements (deductive).
What is an unsound invalid inductive argument?
Is an argument that does not have all true premises (uncogent), structurally bad (weak) and has probable statements (inductive).
What is a sound valid inductive argument?
Is an argument that has all true premises (cogent), is structurally good (strong) and has probable reasoning statements (inductive).
What is an unsound valid inductive argument?
Is an argument that does not have all true premises (cogent), is structurally good (strong) and has probable reasoning statements (inductive)
What is sound and unsound?
Sound is both structure (validity) and truth (all true premises).
Unsound is having valid or invalid structure, and not all premises are true.