Cognitive Psych.txt

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Cognitive Psych.txt
2012-02-17 15:27:34

Test 1
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  1. Cognitive Psychology
    Study of the Mental operations that support peoples aquisition and use of knowledge
  2. Human Information Processing
    The psychological approach that attempts to identify what occurs during the various stages of processing information
  3. Sensory Store
    Part of memory that holds un-analyzed sensory information for a fraction of a second, for further analysis
  4. Pattern Recognition
    Stage of perception during which a stimulus is identified
  5. Filter
    part of attention where information is blocked ( not recognized ) while other information passes through recognized
  6. Selection Stage
    Stage that follows pattern recognition & determines which information person will try to remember
  7. Short Term Memory ( STM )
    Memory that has limited capacity and lasts approximately 20 to 30 seconds without trying to remember
  8. Long Term Memory ( LTM )
    Memory that has NO capacity limits & lasts from minutes to a lifetime
  9. Bottom up processing
    The flow of information from the sensory store toward LTM
  10. Top down processing
    The flow of information FROM LTM toward the sensory store
  11. Stimulus response
    Approach that emphasizes the association between a stimulus and a response, without identifying the mental operations that produced the response
  12. Artificial Intelligence
    study of how to produce computer programs that perform intellectual tasks
  13. Plan
    temporally ordered sequence of operations for carrying out a task
  14. Cognitive Science
    interdisciplinary attempt to study cognition
  15. Cognitive Neuroscience
    Study of the relation between cognitive processes and brain activities
  16. MRI
    Magnetic Resonance Imaging
  17. PET
    Positron emisions to study brain activity with radioactive tracers
  18. ERP
    event related potential diagnostics using electrodes to measure brain waves
  19. Tachistoscope
    A box that presents visual stimuli at a specified duration, and level of ilumination for controlled conditions
  20. Template
    • An un-analyzed pattern that is matched against alternative patterns by using degree of overlap measuring similarity
    • ** least used theory ***
  21. Interstimulus Interval
    amount of time between the end of a stimulus & beginning of another stimulus
  22. Feature theory
    pattern recognition that describes patterns in terms of their parts or features
  23. Perceptual confusion
    measure of the frequency with which two patterns are mistakenly identified as each other
  24. Distinctive feature
    feature present in one pattern but absent in another
  25. caricature
    exaggeration of distinctive features
  26. structural theory
    theory that specifies how the features of a pattern are joined to other features of the pattern
  27. Geons
    Different 3-D shapes that combine to form 3-D patterns
  28. Whole report procedure
    task requiring observers to report everything they see in a display of items
  29. Partial report procedure
    Task where observers are cued to report only certain items in a display of items
  30. Visual Information Store
    Sensory store that maintains visual information for approximately 1/4 second
  31. Rehearsal
    Repeating verbal information to keep it active in STM or transfer to LTM
  32. Auditory Information Store
    Sperlings model maintaining verbal information in STM through rehearsal
  33. Serial processing
    Carrying out one operation at a time
  34. Parallel Processing
    carrying out more than one operation at a time
  35. Scan Component
    Attention component of Sperlings model that determines what is recognized in the visual information store
  36. Detection Paradigm
    Observers have to specify which of two possible target patterns is present in a display
  37. Word superiority effect
    Accuracy in recognizing a letter is higher when the letter is in a word then when it appears alone or in a non-word.
  38. Interactive Activation model
    Theory that both feature knowledge and word knowledge combine to provide information about the identity of letters in a word
  39. Excititory connection
    Positive association between concepts that belong together
  40. Inhibitory connection
    Negative association between concepts that do not belong together
  41. Parallel Distributed Processing ( PDP )
    Information is simultaneously collected from different sources and combined to reach a decision
  42. Neural Network Model
    Concepts ( nodes ) are linked to other concepts through excititory and inhibitory connections to approximate the behavior of neural networks in the brain
  43. Nodes
    The format for representing concepts in a semantic network
  44. Activation Rule
    Determines how inhibitory and excititory connections combine to determine the total activation of a concept
  45. Selectivity
    Selective aspects of attention. Pay attention to some, ignore others.
  46. Bottleneck Theory
    Explain how people select information when some information processing stage becomes overloaded with too much information
  47. Concentration
    Investing mental effort in one or more tasks
  48. Mental Effort
    The amount of mental capacity required to perform a task
  49. Capacity Theory
    We have a limited amount of mental effort to distribute across tasks, so there are limitations on the number of tasks we can perform at the same time
  50. Filter Model
    Bottleneck occurs at the Patern recognition stage & attention determines what information reaches the pattern recognition stage
  51. Limited Capacity Perceptual channel
    Broadbents model of pattern recgonition with stage protected by the filter from becoming overloaded.
  52. Shadowing
    Experimental method that requires people to repeat the attended message out loud
  53. Contextual effect
    Influence of the surrounding context on the recognition of patterns
  54. Threshold
    Minimal amount of activation required to become consciously aware of a stimulus
  55. Attenuation
    Decrease in the perceived loudness of an unattended message
  56. Late-selection Model
    Bottleneck occurs when the information is selected for memory
  57. Allocation of Capacity
    limited amount of capacity is distributed to various tasks
  58. Arousal
    Physiological state that influences the distribution of mental capacity to various tasks
  59. Enduring disposition
    Automatic influence where people direct their attention
  60. Momentary Intention
    Conscious decision to allocate attention to certain tasks or aspects of the environment
  61. Multimode Theory
    Peoples intentions and the demands of the task determine the information processing stage at which information is selected
  62. Subsidiary Task
    Task typically measures how quickly people can react to a target stimulus to evaluate the capacity demands of the primary task
  63. Automatic Processing
    Performing mental operations that require very little mental effort
  64. Stroop effect
    It takes longer to name a color of the ink a word is printed in when the word is the name of a competeing color. Red
  65. Incidental Learning
    Learning that occurs when we do not make a conscious effort to learn
  66. Working Memory
    Use of STM as a temporary store for information needed to accomplish a particular task
  67. Interference Theory
    Forgetting occurs BECAUSE other material interfers with the information in memory
  68. Decay Theory
    Information is spontaneously lost over time, even when there is no interference from other material
  69. Retro-active Interference
    Forgetting that occurs because of interference from material encountered AFTER learning
  70. Pro-active Interference
    Forgeting that occurs because of interference from material encountered BEFORE learning
  71. Release from Pro-active Interference
    Reducing pro-active interference by having information be dissimilar from earlier material
  72. Memory Span
    Number of correct items that people can immediately recall from a sequence of items
  73. Absolute Judgment
    Identifying stimuli that vary along a single sensory continuum
  74. Chunks
    A cluster of items that has been stored as a unit in LTM
  75. Acoustic Code
    Memory code based on the sound of the stimulus
  76. Semantic code
    Memory code based on the meaning of the stimulus
  77. Acoustic confusion
    An error that sounds like the correct answer
  78. Phoneme
    Any of the basic sounds of a language that are combined to form speech
  79. Subvocalizing
    Silently speaking to oneself
  80. Lexical Alteration
    Substituting a word with similar meaning for one of the words in a sentence
  81. Semantic Alteration
    Changing the order of the words in a sentence to change the meaning of the sentence
  82. Praphrase
    Using different words to express the same ideas in a sentence
  83. Memory set
    Set of items in STM that can be compared against a test item to determine if the test item is stored there.
  84. Self-terminating search
    Search that stops as soon as the test item is successfully matched to an item in the memory set
  85. Exhaustive search
    Search that continues until the test item is compared to all items in the memory set
  86. Encode
    Create visual or verbal code for a test item so it can be compared with memory codes in STM
  87. Scan
    Sequentially compare a test item with items in STM to find a match
  88. Slope
    Measure of change along an axis
  89. Phonological loop
    Component of Baddleys Working Memory Model that maintains and manipulates acoustic information
  90. Visuospatial sketchpad
    Component of Baddleys WMM that maintains and manipulates visual/spatial information
  91. Central executive
    Component of Baddleys WMM that manages the use of working memory
  92. Multimodal Code
    Integration of memory codes such as combining visual and verbal codes
  93. Principles of Psychology
    James ( 1890 )
  94. The Mentality of Apes
    Kohler ( 1925 )
  95. Working Memory Model
    Broadbent ( filter model ) 1958
  96. Sperling
    1963, Information processing model where sensory store, Pattern rec. and STM influence performance
  97. Cognitive Psychology
    Neisser ( 1967 )
  98. Simon and Kaplan
    Cognitive science ( 1989 )
  99. Phillips
    1974 Sensory store ( square matrix random filled cells )
  100. Gibson
    Principles of Perceptual Learning and Development ( 1969 )
  101. Townsend
    1971 perceptual confusion ( tachistoscope )
  102. Holbrook
    1975 compared gibson & townsend = some features more important than others causing confusions
  103. The Gestalt
    The ability to understand how all the parts of a problem fit together.
  104. Bartlett
    1932 Remembering: A Study in Experimental and Social Psychology
  105. Behaviorism
    Watson 1924, argued, is psychology science?
  106. Biederman
    Structural correspondence of Geons
  107. Sperling
    • 1960 How many letters can we recognize during brief exposure
    • 4.5 avg
  108. Components of Sperling Model
    • Visual Info Store
    • Scan ( attention, pattern recognition )
    • Auditory Info Store
  109. Rumelhart
    Pattern Recognition: letters are composed of features.
  110. Reicher
    • Word recognition :
    • word condition
    • letter condition
    • non-word condition
  111. Focalization
    Part of the environment or trains of thought ( selective attention )
  112. Treisman
    Attenuation model (shadowing ) repeating what was heard
  113. Late selection / Early selection
    • Broadbent = Early selection - sensory to filter
    • Treisman = Early selection - filter to pattern recognition
    • Deutsch & Deutsch = Late selection - pattern to selection
  114. Kaneman
    • 1973 Attention and Effort:
    • Mental efort important to attention
    • capacity theory of mental effort
    • performance breaks down with demand.
  115. Automatic Processing
    Posner & Snyder ( 1975 ) Automatic skills without intention, awarenenss & interference
  116. Hashner & Zacks
    Some cognitive operations automatic from childhood
  117. Laberge & Samuels
    complex skills require many processes or component skills
  118. Sternberg
    Visual presentations of digits. ( degraded test digit ) degrading affects memory comparison and coding time.
  119. Baddley & Hitch
    • 1974
    • VisuoSpatial SketchPad
    • Central Executive
    • Phonological loop
    • tried to figure out which component important in given task
  120. Baddley 2000
    • Expanded theory to include:
    • Episodic Buffer
    • Visual Semantics
    • Episodic LTM
    • Language
  121. Atkinson & Shiffrin
    Rehearsal, coding, Imagery, *** ways to remember, rehearsal least effective
  122. Metacognition
    Influence aquisition and retrieval on choice of strategies
  123. Aquisition of Knowledge
    Geting information into LTM
  124. 3 retrieval strategies
    • Random order ( know, so no studying )
    • Learner controlled ( Some know, but learn and get better )
    • Response sensitive ( few know, but best results overall )