Ch4_Medical_Terminology_Part2_Muscle_Types_Anatomy_&_Naming

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havenwood
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Ch4_Medical_Terminology_Part2_Muscle_Types_Anatomy_&_Naming
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2012-02-15 22:43:22
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Medical Terminology Health Professional 6E JCCC AAC130 Muscle Types Structure Naming
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Ch4 Part2 Medical Terminology Muscle System - Structure, Types, Movement, Naming, Specialists
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  1. Functions of Muscular System
    1. Hold body erect

    2. Make movement possible

    3. Generate 85% of body heat through movement

    4. Move food thru digestive system

    5. Aid flow of blood thru veins back to heart thru movement such as walking

    6. Moves fluids thru ducts and tubes associated with other body systems
  2. Structures of Muscular System
    1. Muscle fibers

    2. Fascia

    3. Tendons
  3. Muscle Fibers
    1. Long, slender cells make up fibers.

    2. Each muscle consists of a group of fibers

    • 3. Fiber groups are:
    • .....a. Held together by connective tissue and
    • .....b. Enclosed in a fibrous sheath.
  4. Fascia
    1. Sheets of fibrous connective tissue

    2. Covers, supports, and separates muscles or groups of muscles.

    3. Flexible to allow muscle movement

    4. Does not have elastic properties so cannot acommodate swelling of enclosed tissues.
  5. Myofascial
    Means pertaining to muscle tissue and fascia
  6. Tendon
    1. Narrow band of nonelastic, dense, fibrous connective tissue.

    2. Attaches muscle to bone

    Examples: Achilles tendon & aponeurosis
  7. Types of Muscle Tissue
    • There are three types of muscle tissue:
    • .....1. Smooth
    • .....2. Skeletal
    • .....3. Myocardial
  8. Skeletal Muscles
    1. Attached to bones of the skeleton

    2. Make body motions possible

    • 3. Also known as:
    • .....a. Voluntary muscles because we have conscious (volutary) control over these muscles

    .....b. Striated muscles because under a microscope, the dark and light bands in the muscles fibers create a striped appearance.
  9. Smooth Muscles
    • 1. Located in the walls of internal organs such as:
    • .....a. Digestive tract
    • .....b. Blood vessels
    • .....c. Ducts leading from glands

    2. Function is to move and control the flow of fluids through these structures.

    • 3. Also known as:
    • .....a. Involuntary muscles because they are under the control of the autonomic nervous system and are NOT under voluntary control.

    .....b. Unstriated muscles because they do NOT have the dark and light bands tht produce the striped appearance seen in striated muscles.

    • .....c. Visceral muscles because they are found in:
    • ...........(1) Large internal organs (except the heart)
    • ...........(2) Hollow structures such as those of the digestive and urinary systems.
  10. Myocardial Muscle
    1. Structure: Similar to striated muscle

    • 2. Function:
    • .....a. Involuntary, similar to smooth muscle
    • .....b. Forms muscular walls of the heart
    • .....c. Constant contraction & relaxation causes heartbeat

    • 3. Also known as:
    • .....a. Myocardium
    • .....b. Cardiac muscle
  11. Muscle Contraction & Relaxation
    • 1. A wide range of muscle movements are made possible by the combination of specialized:
    • .....a. Muscle types
    • .....b. Muscle innervation
    • .....c. Organization into antagonistic pairs
  12. Muscle Innervation
    Stimulation of a muscle by an impulse transmitted by a motor nerve.

    Motor nerves enable the brain to stimulate a muscle to contract. When stimulation stops, the muscle relaxes.

    If the nerve impulse is interrupted due to injury or diease, the muscle will be unable to function properly or can be paralyzed and unable to contract.
  13. Neuromuscular
    Means pertaining to the relationship between nerve and muscle
  14. Antagonistic Muscle Pairs
    1. All muscles are arranged into antagonistic pairs working in opposition to each other, alternately contracting and relaxing to make motion possible.

    2. Muscles within each pair are made up of specialized cells that can change length or shape by contracting and relaxing.

    3. When one muscle of a pair contracts, the other relaxes.

    Antagonistic refers to working in opposition to each other.

    Example: The triceps and biceps work as a pair to make movement of the arm possible.
  15. Muscle Contraction
    The tightening of a muscle.

    As the muscle tightens, it becomes shorter and thicker, cusing the belly (center) of the muscle to bulge.
  16. Relaxation
    Occurs when the muscle returns to its original form following a contraction.

    As the muscle relaxes, it becomes longer, and thinner, and the belly of the muscle is no longer enlarged.
  17. Contracting Muscle Motion
    • Elevation:
    • .....1. Raising or lifting a body part
    • .....2. Example: Raising ribs when breathing in
    • .....3. A levator is a muscle that raises a body part

    • Depression:
    • .....1. Lowering a body part
    • .....2. A depressor is a muscle that lowers a body part
    • .....3. Example: Lowering the ribs when breathing out
  18. Abduction & Adduction
    • Abduction:
    • ......1. Movement of a limb away from the midline
    • ......2. An abductor muscle moves that part away from the midline.
    • .....3. Example: Arm moves outward away from body

    • Adduction:
    • ......1. Movement of a limb toward the midline
    • ......2. An adductor muscle moves a part toward the midline.
  19. Flexion & Extension
    • Flexion:
    • .....1. Decreasing the angle between two bones by
    • .........Bending a limb at a joint
    • .....2. A flexor is amuscle that bend a limb at a joint.

    • Extension:
    • .....1. Increasing the angle between two bones by
    • .........Straigtening a limb
    • .....2. An extensor is a muscle that straightens a limb at a joint.
  20. Hyperextension
    Extreme or overextension of a limb or body part beyond its normal limit.
  21. Elevation & Depression
    • Elevation:
    • .....1. Raising or lifting a body part
    • .....2. Example: Raising ribs when breathing in
    • .....3. A levator is a muscle that raises a body part

    • Depression:
    • .....1. Lowering a body part
    • .....2. A depressor is a muscle that lowers a body part
    • .....3. Example: Lowering the ribs when breathing out
  22. Rotation & Circumduction
    • Rotation:
    • .....1. Circular movement around an axis *
    • .....2. A rotator muscle turns a body part on its axis
    • .....3. Example: The head of the humerus rotates within the shouder joint

    • Circumduction:
    • ......1. Circular movement of a limb at the far end
    • ......2. Example: Swinging motion at far end of arm
  23. Supination & Pronation
    • Supination:
    • .....1. Rotating the arm so the palm is facing up or forward
    • .....2. Rotating the foot so the sole is facing up or forward

    • Pronation:
    • .....1. Rotating arm so palm of hand is turned down or
    • .........backward
    • .....2. Rotating leg so sole of foot is turned down or
    • .........backward
  24. Dorifexion & Plantar Flexion
    • Doriflexion:
    • .....1. Movement bending foot upward at the ankle -
    • .........Pointing toes & foot upward
    • .....2. Decreases angle between top of foot &
    • .........front of leg

    TIP: think 2 Ds - Dorsoflexion & Decreased angle

    • Plantar Flexion:
    • .....1. Movement bending foot downward at the ankle
    • .........Pointing toes and foot downward
    • .....2. Increases angle between top of foot and
    • .........front of leg
  25. Plantar
    Means pertaining to sole of foot
  26. For What Are Skeletal Muscles Are Named?
    • ......1. Their points of origin and insertion
    • ...........Example: sternocleidomastoid muscle

    • ......2. Their action, such as flexion or extension
    • ...........Example: flexor carpi or extensor carpi muscles

    • ......3. Their location:
    • ............a. Relative position on the body
    • ...............(1) lateralis or medialis
    • ...............(2) internal or external
    • ...........Example: vastus lateralis or external oblique

    • ............b. What organ/body part they are near
    • ..........Example: pectoralis major on anterior
    • ............chest wall

    • .....4. The direction their fibers run:
    • ..........Examples: internal oblique, rectus abdominus, anal sphincter, transverse abdominus

    • .....5. The number of divisions forming them:
    • .........Example: The biceps brachii is formed from
    • ...........two heads; the triceps brachii is formed from
    • .......... three

    • .....6. Their size or shape:
    • ..........a. Named because they are broad, flat, narrow, large, small, etc.
    • .........Examples: gluteus maximus (large), deltoid
    • ............(triangular shape or Greek letter delta)

    • .....7. Strange Reasons:
    • ..........Example: Some muscles, such as the
    • .............hamstrings, have seemingly strange names.
    • .............The reason this group of msucles is so-named
    • .............is that these are the muscles by which a butcher
    • .............hangs a slaughtered pig.
  27. Origin of a muscle:
    • Place where the muscle begins:
    • ......1. Least moveable attachment
    • ......2. Closest to the midline
  28. Insertion of a muscle
    • Place where muscle ends by attaching to a bone or tendon:
    • ......1. Most moveable attachment
    • ......2. Farthest from the midline
  29. Oblique
    Means slanted or at an angle
  30. Rectus
    Means straight in alignment with the vertical axis of the body

    TIP: think erect
  31. Sphincter
    1. A ring-like muscle that tightly constricts the opening of a passageway

    2. A sphincter is named for the passageway involved
  32. Transverse
    Means crosswise direction.
  33. biceps brachii
    • 1. Formed from two divisions (two-headed).
    • 2. Also known as the biceps.
    • 3. Muscle of the anterior upper arm
    • 4. Flexes the elbow
  34. triceps brachii
    • 1. Formed from three divisions (three-headed)
    • 2. Also known as the triceps.
    • 3. Muscle of the posterior upper arm.
    • 4. Extends the elbow.
  35. gluteus maximus
    Largest muscle of the buttock
  36. deltoid muscle
    • 1. Shaped like an inverted triangle or Greek letter 'delta'
    • 2. Forms the muscular cap of the shoulder.
  37. hamstring group
    1. Located at the back of the upper leg

    • 2. Consists of three separate muscles:
    • ......a. biceps femoris
    • ......b. semitendinosus
    • ......c. semimembranosus

    • 3. Primary functions of the hamstrings are:
    • .....a. Knee flexion
    • .....b. Hip extension

    • 4. So-named because these are the muscles by which a butcher hangs a slaughtered pig.

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