key terms from chapters 5 and 6 of Essentials of Criminal Justice
for police officers to advance in rank, they must spend an appropriate amount of time in the preceding rank
the top administrator of the police department: sets policy and has general control over the departmental policies and practices. Typically political rather than civil service appointee and serves at the pleasure of the mayor
involves maintaining order and authority without the need for formal arrest, using threats, persuasion, and understanding
a policy that emphasizes stopping crimes before they occur, rather than reacting to crimes that have already occurred
stopping or reducing crime by convincing would-be criminals that they stand a significant risk of being apprehended and punished for their crimes
a strategy that involves concetrating police resources in areas where certain crimes are a significant problem
broken windows model
a term used to describe the role of the police as maintainers of community order and safety; a disorderly, unkept community invites crime, whereas a community that appears to be well maintained is less likely to have as much crime
a program originated by the NYC police that used carefully collected and analyzed crime data to shape policy and evaluate police effectiveness
an undercover police operation in which police pose as criminals to trap law violators
police officers assigned to enforce morality-based laws (prostitution, gambling, porn)
the use of scientific techniques to investigate questions of interest to the justice system and solve crimes
programs and strategies designed to bring police and the public closer together and create a more cooperative working environment between them
police partols that take officers out of carts and put them on a walking beat in order to strengthen ties with the community
neighborhood oriented policing (NOP)
community policing efforts aimed at individual neighborhoods
a style of police operations that stresses proactive problem solving, rather than reactive crime fighting
hot spots of crime
places from which a significant portion of all poloce calls originate. These hot spots include taverns and housing projects.
the branch of the police department that investigates charges of corruption or misconduct on the part of police officers
the social burden African-American police officers carry by virtue of being both minority group members and police officers
the belief that most people's actions are motivated solely by personal needs and selfishness
the secretive, insulared police culture that isolates officers from the rest of society
the use of personal decision making and choice in carrying out operations in the criminal justice system
the ability to monitor one's own and others' feeling and emotions, to descriminate among them and to use this information to guide one's thinking and actions
the way in which a person outwardly manifests his or her personality
the practice of police targeting minority groups because of a belief that they are more likely to be engaged in criminal activity
usually involves such actions as the use of abusive language, the unnecessary use of force or coercion, threats, prodding with nightsticks, stopping and searching people to harass them, and so on
exercising legitimate discretion for imporper reasons or using illegal means to achieve approved goals
a public body that led an investigation into police corruption in New York and uncovered a widespread network of payoffs and bribes
a term for police officers who actively solicit bribes and vigorously engage in corrupt practices
a term for police officers who accept payoffs when everyday duties place them in a position to "look the other way"
force that is likely to cause death or serious bodily harm
suicide by cop
a form of suicide in which a person acts in an aggressive manner with police officers in order to induce them to shoot to kill
weapons designed to disable or immobilize rather than kill criminal suspects
the requirement that police officers inform suspects subjected to custodial interrogation that they have a constitutional right to remain silent
an order issued by a judge, directing officers to conduct a search of specficied premises for specified objects or persons and bring them before the court
the evidentiary criterion necessary to sustain an arrest or the issuance of an arrest or search warrant; less than absolute certainty, beyond reasonable doubt, but greater than mere suspicion/hunches.
stop and frisk
the situation when police officers who are suspicious of an individual run their hands lightly over the suspects outer garments to determine whether the person is carrying a concealed weapon.
the principle that prohibits the use, in a trial, of evidence illegally obtained.
good faith exception
the principle that evidence may be used in a criminal trial, even though the search warrant used to obtain it is tchnically faulty, if the police acted in good faith and to the best of their ability when they sought to obtain it from a judge.