Ex. Module 22

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Ex. Module 22
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2012-02-15 19:18:44
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  1. The components or tools of a computer system can be grouped into what two categories?
    Hardware and software
  2. What section/unit is the brain of a computer system?
    Central processing unit
  3. What section/unit is the computing center of a computer system?
    Central processing unit
  4. The central processing unit is made up of which of the following sections?
    Control, internal storage, and arithmetic-logic
  5. When a program is so large and complex that it exceeds the memory capacity of a stored-program computer, where is the overflow stored?
    Auxiliary memory
  6. What part of the computer dictates how and when each specific operation is to be performed?
    Control section
  7. Of the four major types of instructions, which one has the basic function of moving data from one location to another?
    Transfer
  8. To send commands to devices not under direct command of the control section, what type of instructions are used?
    Control
  9. Operations like adding and multiplying are performed by what section?
    Arithmetic-logic
  10. When processing is taking place, data is transferred back and forth between what two sections?
    Internal storage and arithmetic-logic
  11. The process by which instructions and data are read into a computer is called what?
    Loading
  12. An auxiliary (wired) memory is used in some computers to permanently store a small program that makes manual loading unnecessary. What is this program called?
    Bootstrap
  13. The tiny doughnut-shaped rings used to make up magnetic core storage are made of what material?
    Ferrite
  14. Data is stored in computers in what form?
    Binary
  15. The state of each core in magnetic core storage is changed by what?
    The direction of current
  16. Electronic circuits are placed on a silicon chip by what method?
    Etched
  17. Each of the individual electronic circuits on a silicon chip is called what?
    A bit cell
  18. Semiconductor storage has which of the following drawbacks?
    It is volatile
  19. Using a very thin crystal made of semiconductor material, what type of memory can be created?
    Bubble
  20. In bubble memory, where is the control circuit imprinted on the crystal of semiconductor material?
    The top
  21. Who installs the programs in read-only memory?
    The manufacturer
  22. Programs that are tailored to certain needs and permanently installed in ROM by the manufacturer are called what?
    Firmware
  23. What kind of memory used inside computers has a read/write capability without any additional special equipment?
    RAM
  24. A special device is needed to burn the program into what type of memory?
    PROM
  25. EPROM can be erased by what method?
    With a burst of ultra-violet light
  26. To coat magnetic disks, what magnetizable recording material is used?
    Iron oxide
  27. What is the size range of the diameters of magnetic disks?
    3 inches to 4 feet
  28. Data is stored on all disks in a number of invisible concentric circles called what?
    Tracks
  29. A floppy disk surface has what maximum number of tracks?
    77
  30. When data is written on a disk in the same area where data is already stored, the old data is affected in which of the following ways, if at all?
    It is replaced
  31. How are records on a track separated?
    By a gap in which no data is recorded
  32. To increase the amount of data we can store on one track, what technique can be used?
    Blocking
  33. Designers were able to increase the data density of a disk by increasing the number of tracks. What code name was given to this technology?
    Winchester
  34. During reading and writing, which of the following changes are achieved by reducing the distance of the read/write heads over the disk surface?
    Data density can be improved and storage capacity increased
  35. To physically organize data on diskettes, what method is used?
    Cylinder
  36. The lengths of magnetic tapes used with computers have what range?
    From 600 to 3,000 feet
  37. Magnetic tapes can be packaged in which of the following ways?
    Open reel, cartridge, and cassette
  38. By which of the following methods are magnetic tape units categorized?
    Type of packaging used for tape
  39. What determines if a standard 1/2-inch tape will have either seven or nine tracks of data?
    The read/write heads installed in the tape unit
  40. For multitrack tapes, what is the range of common recording densities in bits/bytes per inch (bpi)?
    From 200 to 6,250 bpi
  41. On magnetic tape, the size of a record that holds the data is restricted in what two ways?
    By the length of the tape and the capacity of internal storage
  42. In computer terminology, what is called a file?
    A collection of records
  43. In order for data to be read from or written on a magnetic tape, the tape must do what?
    Move at a predetermined speed
  44. Storing single records on a magnetic tape has which of the following disadvantages?
    Too much of the recording surface is wasted
  45. The magnetic drum is another example of what type of access storage device?
    Direct
  46. What is the speed range of a magnetic drum?
    600 to 6,000 rpm
  47. When using a magnetic drum, what is rotational delay?
    Time that occurs in reaching a desired record location
  48. What is the storage capacity range of magnetic drums in characters or bytes of
    data?
    From 20 million to more than 150,000 million
  49. Input data may be in any one of how many forms?
    Three
  50. When data is input from a keyboard, a high average speed is how many characters per second?
    Two to three
  51. Output information is made available in how many forms?
    Three
  52. Magnetic tape stores data in what manner?
    Sequential
  53. The magnetic tape unit reads and writes data in channels or tracks along the length of the tape. How are these tracks referenced to each other?
    Vertical
  54. How does a two gap head allow for increased speed?
    By checking while writing
  55. What are the most common tape densities in bits/bytes per inch?
    800 and 1,600 bpi
  56. The drive motor of a disk drive unit rotates the disk at a constant speed, normally how many revolutions per minute?
    3,600 rpm
  57. The usual range of rotational speed for floppy disks is what?
    300 to 400 rpm
  58. The distance between the read/write head and the surface of a hard disk is called
    what?
    The flying height
  59. Floppy disks come in several sizes with diameters of what size range?
    3 to 8 inches
  60. In the character-at-a-time impact printer class, which printer has the most professional-looking, pleasing-to-the-eye
    print?
    Daisy-wheel
  61. What is another name for the dot-matrix printer?
    Wire-matrix
  62. Dot-matrix printers have which of the following ranges of speeds in characters per second?
    60 to 350 cps
  63. Ink jet printers have what maximum speed in characters per seconds?
    300 cps
  64. Laser printers can print up to approximately what total number of characters per second?
    26,666 cps
  65. What are the two styles of typewriter keyboard arrangements used with a computer?
    QWERTY or DVORAK
  66. When working with display devices, what does the term soft-copy mean?
    The information displayed is not permanent
  67. On a raster scan crt, a raster is a series of what type of lines across the face of a
    crt?
    Horizontal
  68. Each field of a raster scan crt is made up of approximately how many lines?
    525
  69. In a video monitor, what do the frequency bandwidth, the number of characters to be displayed on a line, and the physical size of the screen determine?
    Actual number of picture elements
  70. A monitor that uses 1,000 picture elements per line with a horizontal resolution of 1,000 can display what total number of vertical lines?
    1,000
  71. A raster frame is displayed approximately how many times a second?
    30
  72. To reduce the depth of the crt caused by the length of the tube, what type of displays were designed?
    Flat panel
  73. Compared to the gas plasma and electroluminescent displays, a liquid crystal display differs in which of the following ways?
    It does not generate its own light for the picture elements
  74. The operation of an electroluminescent display requires what total number of volts?
    20
  75. What must you load into a computer to manage its resources and operations?
    Operating system
  76. What program controls the execution of other programs according to job information?
    An operating system
  77. The simplest and most commonly used operating systems on microcomputers are which of the following types?
    Single user/single tasking
  78. Which of the following programs must be compatible with the operating system in use?
    Applications
  79. To overcome the applications software compatibility problem, which of the following is done so the application can be run under several different operating systems?
    Some software comes in several versions
  80. What is another term for "initial program load" the system?
    Boot
  81. When the symbol A> is on the screen of a computer crt, it tells the operator/user which of the following information?
    The system is ready, and drive A is assigned as your primary drive
  82. The three characters following each directory entry are called what?
    Extensions
  83. Commands built into the operating system that control actions, like diskcopy and rename, are what type of commands?
    Utility
  84. To eliminate the need for programmers to write new programs when all they want to do is copy, print, or sort a data file, which of the following types of programs can be used?
    Utility
  85. What is the term given to arranging records in a predefined sequence or order?
    Sorting
  86. On a computer, what is the sequence of characters called?
    Collating sequence
  87. To sort a data file, what must you tell the sort program?
    The data field or fields to sort on
  88. Sort-merge programs usually have which of the following characteristics?
    Phases
  89. What personnel or methods are used to generate programs to print detail and summary reports of data files?
    Report program generators
  90. What are report program generators designed to save?
    Programming time
  91. Each time there is a control break, what does the program developed by the report program generator print?
    Summary information
  92. A computer language that is a string of numbers which represents the instruction code and operand addresses is what type?
    Machine
  93. Mnemonic instruction codes and symbolic addresses were developed early in what decade?
    1950s
  94. An instruction that allows the programmer to write a single instruction which is equivalent to a specified sequence of machine instructions is what type of instruction?
    Macroinstruction
  95. What does the acronym COBOL stand for?
    Common business oriented language
  96. PASCAL is being used by many colleges and universities to teach programming for which of the following reasons?
    It is fairly easy to learn and more powerful than BASIC
  97. The development of Ada was initiated by what organization?
    U. S. Department of Defense
  98. What are the two most familiar of the procedure-oriented languages used for scientific or mathematical problems?
    BASIC and FORTRAN
  99. Compared with programs written in symbolic languages, programs written in procedure-oriented languages differ in which of the following ways?
    They can be used with a number of different computer makes and models
  100. Compared with symbolic languages, procedure-oriented languages have which
    of the following disadvantages?
    They require more space in memory, and they process data at a slower rate
  101. Which of the following is a simple definition of programming?
    The process of planning the computer solution to a problem
  102. Which of the following is NOT a basic characteristic of a computer?
    It can think
  103. How many fundamental and discrete steps are involved in solving a problem on a computer?
    Four
  104. In the advance planning phase of programming, what are the first two steps?
    Problem understanding/ definition and flowcharting
  105. Which of the following is NOT part of defining every aspect of a problem?
    What is the computation time
  106. Once you have a thorough understanding of the problem, what is the next step in programming?
    Flowcharting
  107. The method of pictorially representing a step-by-step solution to a problem before computer instructions are written to produce the desired results is called what?
    Flowcharting
  108. What two types of flowcharts are there?
    System and programming
  109. What are the four basic tools used in flowcharting?
    Fundamental symbols, graphic symbols, flowcharting template, and flowcharting worksheet
  110. Within a flowchart, what type of symbols are used to specify arithmetic operations and relational conditions?
    Graphic symbols
  111. To develop a flowchart, which of the following must you know first?
    What problem you are to solve
  112. In solving a problem, which of the following ways does a computer operate?
    One step after another in specified order
  113. What is the step called in which you code a program that can be translated by a computer into a set of instructions it can execute?
    Program coding
  114. Before sitting down to code the computer instructions to solve a problem, you should complete which of the following activities?
    Planning and preparation
  115. What is the fundamental element in program preparation?
    Instruction
  116. The first part of a computer instruction, which answers the question what, is known by which of the following terms?
    Command or operation
  117. The second specific part of the predicate in a computer instruction, known as the operand, in general answers what question?
    Where
  118. What part of the program must the programmer prepare according to the format required by the language and the computer to be used?
    Instructions
  119. To copy data from one storage location to another and to rearrange and change data elements in some prescribed manner, what type of instructions are used?
    Data movement
  120. Transfer of control instructions are classified as which of the following types?
    Conditional and unconditional
  121. Errors caused by faulty logic and coding mistakes are referred to as what?
    Bugs
  122. The process of carefully checking the coding sheets before they are keyed into the computer is known as what?
    Desk-checking
  123. A definition of the problem, a description of the system, a description of the program, and operator instructions make up what package?
    Documentation
  124. Which of the following is another name for packaged software?
    Off-the-shelf programs
  125. What type of software allows you to enter data and then retrieve it in a variety of ways?
    Data management
  126. You can use all printers for graphics output.
    False
  127. In using a digital computer, which of the following is one of the major problems we face?
    Communicating with the computer
  128. In computer terminology, what is a general term to describe raw facts?
    Data
  129. In computer terminology, when data has been processed with other facts and has meaning, it is described as which of the following?
    Information we can understand and properly use
  130. Data is represented by which of the following means?
    By symbols
  131. What is data to be represented called?
    Source data
  132. Raw data is typically written on some type of paper document referred to as what type of
    document?
    Source document
  133. Numeric, alphabetic, and special characters are represented in a computer's internal storage and on magnetic media through the use of what kind of system?
    Coding
  134. It is possible to represent maximum of 256 different characters or bit combinations by
    using which of the following codes?
    8 - b i t
  135. In addition to four numeric bits, there are four other bitpositions used in an a-bit code,
    what are they called?
    Zone bits
  136. Which of the following numbering systems has a base of 16?
    Hexadecimal
  137. Representing two numeric characters in one byte (eight bits) is referred to as what?
    Packing
  138. By packing data within an 8-bit code, which of the following results are achieved?
    Storage space required decreases and processing speed increases
  139. Through the cooperation of several manufacturers, what a-bit code was developed for transmitting and processing data?
    ASCII
  140. An additional bit in each storage location called a parity bit is used for what purpose?
    To detect errors
  141. The parity bit is also called what?
    Check bit
  142. The test for bit count is called what?
    Parity check
  143. What storage area accepts and holds input data to be processed?
    Input
  144. A single binary digit is called what?
    BIT
  145. What symbol is used when we refer to the size of computer memory?
    K
  146. When many magnetic cores are strung together on a screen of wire, what type of plane is formed?
    A core plane
  147. When a core is magnetized, what characteristic of magnetism determines whether it contains a binary 0 or a binary 1?
    Direction
  148. The storage capacity of an address is designed and built into the computer by which of the following people or organizations?
    Manufacturer
  149. Computers that are built to retrieve , manipulate, and store a fixed number of characters in each address are said to be which of the following types of computer
    Fixed-word-length
  150. Computers that store a single character in each address location are said to be which of the following types of computers?
    Character-addressable
  151. Different word lengths, such as half-word, full-word, and doubleword, are possible with what type of computer?
    Byte-addressable
  152. When a flexible computer is working in a fixed-word-length environment, each address
    identifies what group of elements that can be operated on as a unit
    Bytes
  153. To automatically retrieve, manipulate, and store a fixed word of data as a unit on a
    flexible computer, what means can a programmer use?
    Program instructions
  154. In computer terminology, a group of related bits is known by which of the following terms?
    Word
  155. What group of related items form a record?
    Fields
  156. When data can be obtained quickly from anywhere on the media without having to read the records in front of it, which of the following types of storage is being used?
    Direct-access
  157. Which of the following is an example of random-access storage?
    Thin film
  158. Any system composed of one or more computers and terminals is the definition for what?
    Network
  159. When dissimilar machines have the ability to communicate, they act in which of the following ways?
    As a team
  160. For local area networks, what two designs are used?
    Broadband and baseband
  161. The communications channel that uses the basic frequency band of radio waves and a coaxial cable is what type?
    Baseband
  162. The transmission of voice as well as data and text can be handled by what type of communications channels?
    Broadband
  163. Wide area networks are sometimes referred to as which of the following networks?
    Global
  164. The first successful communications satellite for business applications was launched in what year?
    1965
  165. When we transmit data directly to a computer over long distances, it becomes necessary to add two other devices, one at each end of the communications line. These devices are called what?
    Modems
  166. A modem converts the digital signal produced by your terminal or the computer to what type of signal suitable for transmission over the communications line?
    Audio
  167. If conversion of the digital signal to be transmitted were not carried out, it would degenerate and become what?
    Garbled
  168. Telephone lines are a frequently used type of communications channel. They are often referred to by which of the following terms?
    Land lines
  169. In communications, what name is given to those devices that serve to interconnect?
    Interface elements
  170. When using a modem, what are the two methods of data transmission?
    Asynchronous and synchronous
  171. The transmission method that uses a single set of start and stopmessage characters per block of data is which of the following types?
    Synchronous
  172. Whenever data is transferred between devices, it also involves an exchange of prearranged signals known as what?
    Handshaking
  173. The specific set of rules used to govern handshaking and message characters is called what?
    Protocol

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