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Tarsal bones proximal row
talus and calcaneus
Distal row of tarsals from Medial to LAT
Navicular, Medial cuneiform, intermediate cuneiform, lateral cuneiform, cuboid
- no muscle, ligaments for talocrural, subtalar, and talocalcaneonavicular joint.
- Transmits the weight of the body through these joints to the other weight-bearing bones of the foot.
- Has a body, neck, and head.
Trochlea of the talus
Pulley that is formed by the dorsal surface of the body. Articulates with the crural bones to form the talocrural joint.
Surfaces of trochlea
- superior surface articulates with INF surface of tibia. Wider in front, convex from front to back and slightly concave from side to side.
- Superior surface is continuous MED with commashaped facet for medial malleolus. Laterally with a triangular facet for the lateral malleolus.
Posterior process fo trochlea
Posterio surface. Larger lateral and medial tubercle deparated by a groove containing the tendon of the FLEX hallucis longus
Formed by the plantar surface covered with an oval concave facet that articulates with the convex posterior talar facet of the calcaneus
Neck of the talus
connects the body to the head
- A canal between the neck and the calcaneus
- filled by the interosseous talacalcanean ligament
Head of talus
articulates in fron with concave proximal articular surface of navicular and below with the upper surface of the spring ligament and the ANT and middle talar facts of the calcaneus to for talocalcaneonavicular joint
Calcaneous anterior superior surface contains?
facet for subtalar join, 2 smaller anterior and middle facets for the talocalcaneonavicular jointl
Where does the tendo calcaneus insert?
middle of the posterior surface
Tuberosity of the calcaneus
back of the plantar surface. rounded MED and LAT processes for the plantar aponeurosis and superficial muscles of the sole.
shelf-like projection from upper border of medial surface of calcaneus. Suppers the head of the talus. Plantar surface is groved by the FLEX hallucis longus tendon.
lateral surface separates the tendons of the fibularis long and brevis
Sellar shaped fact on the ANT surface of the calcaneus that articulates with the cuboid.
Transverse tarsal join
formed by the talonavicular portion of the talcalcaneonavicular joint and the calcaneocuboid joint
boat-shaped. Concave proximal articular surface for the head of the talus and convex distal articular surface for the 3 cuneiforms.
- Medial and inferior
- where most of tibialis posterior inserts.
- wedge-shaped. Play an important role in forming the transverse arch of foot.
- Medial (1st) is largest and intermediate (2nd) is smallest.
cuneiform bony properties
- concave proximal surface
- distally forms tarsometatarsal joint by articulating with the base of the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd metatarsal
- Forms 2 intercuneiform joints and articulates with cuboid
- articulates proximally with the calcaneus,
- medially with the lateral cuneiform and navicular
- distally forms the lateral 2 tarsometatarsal joints by articulating with the bases of the 4&5 metatarsals.
- long bones consisting of base, body (shaft) and a head.
- 1st is shortest and thickest
5 form by base of metatarsals articulate with the cuneiforms and cuboid
sides of bases of the lateral four articulate with each other
Med and LAT sesamoid bones
lie on the plantar surface of the head of the 1st metatarsal. insertion of the flexor hallucis brevis
tuberosity of the 5th metatarsal
- lateral side
- insertion of fibularis brevis
formed by the pulley-like trochlear surfaces of the heads articulating with the reciprocally curved bases of the adjacent phalanges
stretches from the tuberosity of the calcaneus to the ehads of the metatarsals.
built to transmit weight to the ground
formed by distal row of tarsals and the bases of the metatarsals
What maintains the arches
plantar aponeurosis ligament, cural muscles, and intrinsic muscles of sole
What are the weightbearing points of the foot?
tuberosity of calcaneus, heads of metatarsals. At the ends of the longitudinal arches
- extend between the MED malleolus and calcaneus
- Tendons of deep group of calf muscles, tibial nerve and POST tib vesells pass through
Superior and inferior fibular retinaculum
- fibularis longus and brevis pass deep to it.
- Superior extends between the lateral malleolus and the lateral surface of the calcaneus
- INF - attached at both its ends to the LAT surface of the calcaneus.
superior and inferior Extensor retinacula
Tendons of the ANT crural muscles, deep fibular nerve, and ANT tibial vessels pass beneath
deep fibular nerve
innervates ANT crural muscles, short extensor, cutaneous branch to 1st and 2nd toes
superficial fibular nerve
divides into MED and LAT branches that supply the rest of the skin on the dorsum of the foot and toes
Dorsali pedis artery
ANT tibial artery continues, supply the dorsum of the foot and toes.
- extends from tuberosity of calcneus to toes where it divides into 5 bands.
- maintains the longitudinal arch
first layer of muscles
ABD hallucis, FLEX digitorum brevis, ABD digiti minimi
2nd layer of muscles
quadratus plantae and lumbricals
third layer of muscles
flexor hallucis brevis, ADD hallucis, FLEX digiti minimi brevis
Fourth layer of muscles
dorsal and plantar interossei
Medial plantar nerve
supplies the skin of the MED side of sole and medial 3.5 toes. Innervates the FDB, ABD hallucis, FLEX hallucis brevis, and 1st lumbrical
Lateral plantar nerve
supplies skin of the lateral side of sole and lateral 1.5 toes and innervates the interossei, FDMB, ADD Hall, 2-4 lumbricals, Quadratus plantae, ABD digit minimi
Medial plantar artery
supplies ABD hallucis and FDB, ends on medial border of big toe
LAT plantar artery
arches medially across the foot as the plantar arch to the 1st interosseeous space. Supply most of skin and muscles of the sole.