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_______ is a contagious respiratory illness caused by the influenza viruses.
Highest illness rates for the flu are in _________.
Highest complication rates for the flu are found in what population?
90% of deaths from influenza are among what population?
Which two types of influenza viruses are seasonal and epidemic.
What influenz virus is not seasonal and not epidemic?
T/F Influenza C infections cause mild respiratory illness and are not thought to cause epidemics.
What family does the influenza virus belong to?
__ ___ _______ unwinds RNP to expose RNA for replication purposes.
M2 ion channel
Which viral protein helps the viurs to attach to the host cell?
Neuraminidase release ________ from cells.
________ to neuraminidase can help reduce disease severity.
A change in flu virus from season to season is considered a ___________
T/F Mutation and pressures on the virus cause the influenza strain to change forms.
Antigenic ________ is associated with pandemics and new novel influenza viruses.
What is the primary form of spreading the flu? What is a another way?
- coughing or sneezing
- touching something contaminated and touching mouth or nose
How long can an infected person shed/spread the influenza virus?
- for 5-7 days after onset of illness
- Children, severely ill, immunocompromised can shed long than 7 days
The incubation period for the flu is _____ days and viral spreading can begin ___ day before illness onset.
- 1-7 days (typically 2-3days)
What are the three lab test used to diagnose influenza? How long does it take for the results of each? Which is the gold standard method?
1. Rapid Antigen Detection (quickest)(30min)
2. PCR (one day)
3. Culture (Gold Standard method)( up to 10 days)
These are types of Neuraminidase inhibitors used for prevention and treatment of influenza.
Neuraminidase inhibitors prevent _____ of virus from infected cells.
What Adamantanes are not active against influenza B viruses?
Oseltamivir and Zanamivir are transition state analogs of _______
Neuraminidase inhibitors disrupt neuraminidase activity causing viral particles to ___________ on the cell surface reducing virus spread.
Oseltamivir inhibit influenza ___ and ____ neuraminidase
Amantadine and Rimantadine primary action is to disrupt the influenza A _____ protein, used to acidify viral transport..
Adamantanes block the acid mediated dissociation of influenza _______ complex required for viral replication.
In some strains, Adamantanes also interfere with the _________ processing in some strains.
When is the greatest benefit to start anti-viral treatment?
within 48 hrs of illness onset
What are the high risk populations susceptible for influenza complications?
- 1. Children aged <2 yrs="" adults="">65 yrs
- 2.Persons with chronic pulmonary, cardiovascular, renal, hepatic, hematological, metabolic, neurologic or neurodevelopmental disorders
- 3.Persons with immune suppression
- 4..Women who are pregnant or postpartum
- 5.Persons aged <19 yrs="" on="" chronic="" aspirin="" therapy="" 6="" american="" indians="" alaska="" natives="" br=""> 7.Morbidly obese (BMI >40)
- 8. Residents of nursing homes or LTCFs
What is the definition of Chemoprophylaxis?
the administration of a medication for the purpose of preventing disease or infection
T/F: Postexposure Chemoprophylaxis eliminates the risk of infection, but it is not a substitute for the vaccine.
False, does not eliminate, just lowers the risk
Decisions to administer chemoprophylaxis are based on:
1. Exposed person's risk for influenza complications
2. Type and duration of contact
3. Recommendations from local public health authorities
4. Clinical judgement
When should postexposure chemoprophylaxis be administered?
within 48hrs of exposure
What is the best way to prevent influenza.
Name the two types of vaccines available.
- Trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine(TIV)
- Live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV)
What is the recommended age for trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine?
- 6 months and older
- those with chronic conditions
What is the recommended age for the live attenuated influenza vaccine.
Healthy persons 2-49 years of age and not pregnant.
Each vaccine has Two ____ strains and one ____ strain.
Two A, One B
In 2010-2011 vaccine includes ________ like virus, ______ like virus, and ________ like virus
•A/California/7/2009 (H1N1)–like virus, A/Perth/16/2009 (H3N2)–like virus, and B/Brisbane/60/2008–like virus
In February 2010 The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practicies recommended annual flu vaccinations for all person aged ______ months and older
Contraindications to vaccination include people who have allergies to _____and who have developed _______ syndrome withing 6 weeks of previous influenza vaccine.
- Chicken eggs
- Guillain-Barre syndrome.
T/F Persons currently ill with fever are ok to get flu shot.
What is MMWR? From which organization?
- Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
- Center for Disease Control and Prevention
List the Maine Influenza Surveillance.
- 1. Sentinel providers
- 2. Hospital admissions
- 3.Vital records
- 4.Health and environmental testin lab
- 5.Private Labs