Test Two Notebook Notes

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Test Two Notebook Notes
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2012-02-15 21:31:46
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Test Two
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  1. What president started a conservation movement that led to federal oversigh of resources?
    Teddy Roosevelt
  2. Leopold's seminal work on conservation.
    A Sand county Almanac
  3. He fought to set aside places like Yosemite in California. Later founded Sierra club.
    John Muir
  4. What was the first national park?
    Yellowstone
  5. Are national parks big enough to offset large-scale habitat destruction?
    No
  6. State and national forests take up what fraction of land in US?
    1/5
  7. When do large fights over logging and mining of old-growth forests really begin?
    With the passing of the Endangered Species Act
  8. Is deforestation a problem in the rest of the world?
    Yes
  9. Some countries, like Costa Rica, set aside forests for...
    Ecotourism
  10. What represents unparalleled economic opportunity for poor countries?
    Ecotourism
  11. Why would doctors advocate for the preservation of topical forests?
    Their portential to derive pharmaceutical products.
  12. Movement in India comprised of local "tree-hugging" women.
    Chipko
  13. Forgive foreign countries' debts if they agree to set aside forests.
    Debt-for-nature swaps.
  14. The ability to obtain enough food on a daily basis.
    Food security
  15. Over 1 billion live on less than how much money a day?
    $1 U.S.
  16. Is there enough food to go around on Earth?
    Yes, but much of it is wasted.
  17. When not able to get proper amount of calories on a daily basis, in part because distribution methods are inadequate.
    Undernourishment
  18. Large scale foot shortages.
    Famines
  19. Flooding, war, corruption, desertification can trigger what?
    Famines
  20. Who suffers the most during famines?
    Poor
  21. When people consume sufficient numbers of poor quality calories.
    Malnourishment
  22. Malnourishment can result in what?
    Obesity
  23. Does malnourishment occur in countries with food shortages?
    Yes
  24. These are found in urban locations with little high quality food but lots of poor quality food.
    Food deserts
  25. What do inner-cities lack that suburbs have an abundance of?
    Grocery stores
  26. Humans largely depend on what three crops?
    Wheat, rice and maize
  27. Small farmers are replaced globally by...
    Corporate farming
  28. Type of farming that is input intensive and inefficient.
    Industrial farming
  29. In industrial farming, for every one calorie of energy gained, how many are expended?
    99
  30. What proportion of grains produced globally now feed animals that we consume?
    1/3
  31. Requires heavy machinery, replacing human labor.
    Row-cropping
  32. What store the genetic information of corn, wheat, etc?
    Seed banks
  33. Replacing native corn and wheat.
    Genetically modified organisms. (GMOS)
  34. Where animals are raised in numbers of a thousand or more on concentrated animal feeding operations.
    Feedlots (CAFOS)
  35. Diffused western agricultural practices globally.
    The green revolution
  36. What is a problem with the green revolution?
    Land degradation and poor farmers cannot afford new practices
  37. What is happening to groundwater?
    Disappearing and contamination
  38. Important resources for the production of cattle worldwide.
    Grasslands
  39. What threatens the regenerative capacity of cattle?
    Over-grazing
  40. Over-grazing in grasslands with erratic rainfall causes...
    desertification
  41. What is the largest purchaser of ground beef and potatoes?
    McDonald's
  42. The top 4 beef companies in the world control what percent of the market?
    80%
  43. What are put in the feed of animals in giant feedlots?
    Antibiotics
  44. Catchers are generally what race?
    African Americans and Latinos
  45. Much of our food is clever rearrangements of what?
    Corn
  46. When does e-Coli evolve?
    When we feed corn cows.
  47. How many slaughterhouses are there in the US today?
    13
  48. Law named after little boy due to food contamination.
    Kevin's Law
  49. Company that does seed investigating.
    Monsanto
  50. These can dimish annual soil losses.
    Tilling practices and terracing.
  51. Fix Nitrogen which crops like corn and wheat deplete.
    Legumes (beans)
  52. What percent of Egyptians live within 10 miles of the Nile?
    90%
  53. Study of human populations and their distribution
    Demography
  54. Permanantly inhabited portions of the Earth
    Ecumene
  55. The number of people in relation to the territory they occupy
    Population density
  56. Number of people in relation to the amount of arable land available.
    Physiological density
  57. Number of years a human can expect to live.
    Life expectancy
  58. Why aren't life expectancies growing in sub-Saharan Africa?
    (HIV/AIDS)
  59. Number of elderly people supported by people in their "productive" years/
    Dependency ratio
  60. Rate of natural increase =
    Crude birth rate - crude death rate
  61. Doubling time at the present growth rate can be estimated by...
    dt = 70 / RNI
  62. What phase was agrarian society?
    Phase one.
  63. The move to cities - children become liability, birth rate still high, death rate goes down.
    Beginning of Industrialization (Phase Two)
  64. Birth rate starts to decline rapidly - almost impossible to have many kids and stay afloat.
    Heavy industrial (phase 3)
  65. Birth rate remains low - low death rates - population steady but may decline.
    Our society today (phase 4)
  66. Ideology that fears of inevitable overpopulation with limited resources leads to catastophe.
    Malthusian
  67. Malthusian had the Population _______ thesis.
    Bomb
  68. Ideology says that analysis of uneven development suggests that uneven distribution of resources causes famine.
    Marxist
  69. Demographic transition in Europe proves Malthus....
    incorrect
  70. What was the chemical company that dumped tons of toxic waste in Love Canal?
    Hooker Chemical
  71. The Comprehensive Environmental Reponse, Compensation, and Liabilities Act (Superfund) was passed in response to what?
    Love Canal
  72. Times Beach is now a what?
    State park
  73. What does mainstream environmentalism focus on?
    Threats to nonhumans.
  74. Environmental justice movement is what?
    A grassroots movement that seeks to prevent location of toxic facilities in or near poor communities.
  75. The disproportionate exposure of minorities to toxins
    Environmental racism
  76. What is the single best predictor for location of toxic waste facilities?
    Minority status
  77. Concern that everyone shares the same healthy environment
    Distrubutional justice
  78. The struggle by minority groups to gain power in decision making processes
    Procedural justice
  79. What is NIMBY, and who uses this idea?
    Not in my backyard. Rich people
  80. How thick is our atmosphere?
    300 miles
  81. What percent of the atmosphere is CO2?
    Less than 1%
  82. The lowest and most dense layer of the atmosphere.
    Troposphere
  83. Why is troposphere thicker at the equator?
    Warm air is less dense, and expands.
  84. Where does most weather happen?
    Troposphere
  85. Currents that create weather
    Convective currents
  86. Area from 10-30 miles up. Much less mass than troposphere.
    Statosphere.
  87. Where is the ozone layer?
    Stratosphere
  88. What does the ozone absorb?
    Incoming ultra-violet radiation
  89. Temps in the stratosphere tend to ________ with altitude.
    Increase
  90. Temps in troposphere tend to __________ with altitude.
    Decrease
  91. Incoming solar energy
    Insolation
  92. Water, snow, ice clouds have high what? Also known as reflectivity.
    Albedo.
  93. Energy absorbed to be released later.
    Latent energy
  94. Why does Seattle have warmer winters than Minneapolis?
    Near the coast
  95. The idea that continents release latent heat quickly.
    Continentality
  96. The number of children born to an average woman in a population during her entire reproductive life.
    Total ferttility rate
  97. Total Fertility Rate is highest in? Lowest?
    African countries. China.

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