Science TEST Digestion

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sarahny1
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135668
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Science TEST Digestion
Updated:
2012-02-15 22:20:19
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Science TEST Digestion
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Science TEST Digestion
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  1. Incomplete Dominance
    snapdragons and four o clock flowers

    pink
  2. Codominance
    • roan cows
    • both alleles equally expressed
  3. Multiple alleles
    • can only be studied in populations (3+)
    • like blood groups
  4. Blood Groups
    • -each individual is A, B, AS, or O phenotype
    • i: no protein produced

    • A: IAIA, IAi
    • B: IBIB, IBi
    • AB: IAIB
    • O: ii
  5. Pedigree
    • circle female
    • square male
    • filled in afflicted
    • half filled carrier
    • line thru dead

    • two diagonal lines: twins
    • parallel lines: children
  6. Chemical vs mechanical digestion
    • Chemical: breaking down using enzymes
    • Mechanical: breaking down to smaller peices
  7. Both in mouth, stomach
    Mechanical is esophogus
  8. one way vs two way
    • one way: two openings (ex- grasshoppers, humans)
    • two way: one opening (ex-hydra, protists)

    advantage of one way: cleaner, no waiting to process food
  9. intracellular vs extracellular
    Intracellular: single or few cells (cells of the organism direct contact to surface) ex: paramecium, amoeba

    Extracellular: multiple cells, enzymes excreted. ex: humans, earthworms, grasshoppers, fungi
  10. Protists, Hydra, Grasshopper, Earthworm
    Protists: unicellular, heterotrophic, food in thru mouth pore

    Hydra: simple multicellular w/ tentacles that stun prey, both into and extracellular digestion, two way distigestive system (one opening)

    Grasshopper: actual mouth parts: able to chew food and mix w saliva (salivary glands), herbivore (eats plants), rectum (absorption of water), gizzard for mech grinding

    Earthworm: eat their enviro (soil), tube w/in a tube, two openings (one way), extracellular, both chem and mechanical digestion, gizzard for mech grinding
  11. enzymes and their functions
    • amalase: salivary glands, breaks down carbs
    • bile: liver, breaks down fats
  12. where things get digested
    • some digestion in stomach
    • most vitamin absorption is SI
    • most water absorption in LI
  13. accesory organs
    • Teeth, tongue, liver, gallbladder,
    • pancreas, salivary glands.
  14. parts of the digestive system and disorders
    • Digestive tract30 foot long tube extending
    • from mouth to anus.Also called the alimentary
    • canal.Accessory organs:Teeth, tongue, liver, gallbladder,
    • pancreas, salivary glands.The mouth:Mechanical digestion begins
    • with teeth grinding food.Contains salivary glands found
    • under mucous membrane of mouth.Saliva moistens food, begins
    • starch and fat digestion, inhibits bacteria, and binds food into a bolus
    • (ball).99.5% water and solutes.Contains enzyme salivary amylase,
    • begins starch digestion.pH of 6.8 to 7.Pharynx:Open area at the back of the
    • mouth, serves as a passage for air and food.Bolus travels from mouth to
    • pharynx, then to esophagus.Epiglottis:Flap of cartilage behind the
    • tongue, prevents food from going down larynx (windpipe).EsophagusStraight muscular tube 25-30
    • cm long.Nonkeratinized stratified
    • squamous epithelium.Skeletal muscle in upper part,
    • and smooth in bottom.Pushes food down tube by alternating
    • contractions of muscle layers: “peristalsis”To enter stomach, food passes
    • through an opening between the esophagus and stomach. If this
    • opening does not close quickly, stomach acid gets into the esophagus
    • and can cause heartburn.Stomach:Mechanically breaks up food,
    • begins chemical digestion of protein and fat. Turns food into soupy
    • mixture called “Chyme.”Does not absorb significant
    • nutrients. Absorbs aspirin and lipid-soluble drugs.Stomach has three layers of
    • muscle: circular, longitudinal, and diagonal, all churn food.Inner lining of stomach is
    • composed of epithelial cells and openings called gastric pits, which
    • release secretions into the stomach.Hydrochloric acid in stomach
    • activates pepsin, and lingual lipase, breaks tissues and plant cell
    • walls, destroys bacteria and pathogens.If the mucous lining of the
    • stomach wears out, the hydrochloric acid will cause formation of an
    • ulcerLiver:Stores glucose, makes proteins,
    • breaks down toxic substances.Produces bile, vital to digestion
    • of fats.

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