Central Nervous System c.8 -Test 1.txt

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Central Nervous System c.8 -Test 1.txt
2012-02-15 22:40:09
psu BIOL141

Central nervous system, c.8 BIOL 141 test 1
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  1. In embryonic development, the brain begins as the neural _________ and where it fuses to the ectoderm becomes the neural ______.
    • Tube;
    • crest
  2. The cavities left behind by the developing neural tube in the adult brain are called the __________ (filled with CSF)
  3. the forebrain divides into __________ & ___________
    • (tel)encephalon;
    • (di)encephalon
  4. Midbrain divides into .....
    midbrain does not divide
  5. the hindbrain divides into the _______ & __________
    • (met)encephalon;
    • (myel)encephalon
  6. the "central canal" is the cavity of the _____________
    spinal cord
  7. Motor and sensory areas of the brain have ___________ cortex dedicated for when there are more receptors
  8. masses of gray matter neuron bodies located deep within white matter (these control muscle) are called ________. (i.e. putamen, caudate nucleus, etc).
    basal ganglia (associated with Parkinson's)
  9. _______ hemisphere controls speech (prosody: i.e. meaning of tone), writing, language etc
  10. __________ hemisphere controls language and spatial comprehension
  11. the _____________ controls emotion! (With few connections to the rest of the brain)
    limbic system
  12. _________'s area is responsible for language comprehension. (damage to this results in "word salad")
  13. __________'s area is responsible for motorization of speech/speaking. (damage results in "reluctance" to speak)
  14. primary area associated with memory is the __________
  15. emotional memory is regulated by the ____________
  16. Short term memory is associated neurons firing in a circular pathway; these are called __________ circuits. (maintain a "thought" for a period of time)
  17. The sensory area (frontal) and motor area (parietal) are regions of the brain divided by the ________________
    central sulcus
  18. The sensory and motor areas are organized such that body parts with more motor and sensory neurons have ________ cortex dedication
  19. The _____ are masses of gray matter composed of neron cell bodies located within the white matter of the cerebrum
    basal (base) ganglia (cluster of neurons)
  20. curare's poisonous effects (paralysis) were discovered by Sir ________________
    Walter Raleigh
  21. Muhammad Ali, the famous boxer, was diagnosed with ________________. It is more commonly occuring in those exposed to repeated head trauma.
    Parkinson's Disease (degenerative CNS: insufficient dopamine etc)
  22. Claustrum, caudate nucleus, globus pallidus, and putamen control skeletal muscles. As a whole they make up the _____________
    basal ganglia
  23. a set of brain structures including the hippocampus, amygdala, anterior thalamic nuclei, septum, and fornix: _______
    limbic system
  24. the ____________ composes 4/5 of the diencephalon (center of brain). It is the relay center of the brain
  25. the most inferior portion of the diencephalon. Controls the 4 F's (feeding fighting fleeing & reporducing)
    hypothalamus (underchamber)
  26. inferior the hypothalamus, the _____________ releases hormones at the hypothalamus's signal.
    Pituitary gland
  27. the ______ nucleus is an area of gray matter in the midbrain that maintains connections with the cerebrum and cerebellum (also motor coordination).
  28. responsible for behavioral reward (midbrain). Involves dopamine
    VTA (ventral tegmental area)
  29. Parkinson's disease involves degeneration of the ___________ _________ (motor coordination in midbrain)
    substantia nigra)
  30. Midbrain: superior colliculi = _________ ; inferior colliculi = ____________
    • vision;
    • audition
  31. rounded bulge in the hindbrain. controls respiratory center and several crainial nerve tracts
  32. second largest structure in the brain (in hindbrain). Coordinates movement & talks to proprioceptors
  33. the neuron fibers connecting the spinal cord and the brain pass through the __________ where many fibers cross over to the contralaterl side in the pyramids
    medulla oblongata (breathing and cardiovascular response)
  34. activity of the _______ promotes wakefulness, inhibition of the _______ promotes sleep
    RAS (reticular activating system)
  35. _____ is a sleep disorder involved with the RAS
  36. impulses of cutaneous receptors, proprioceptors, and visceral receptors are conveyed by by the ___________ tracts (some decussate/crossing over)
  37. corticospinal, or ____________ tracts, are 3rd order neurons tracts that synapse in the thalamus (motor impulses)
  38. axons that synapse with neurons in the spinal cord, largely controlled by the motor cortexes .
    extrapyramidal tracts
  39. damage to the coritcospinal or pyramidal tracts can be detected by the ___________ reflex
    Babinski (toe upward, rather than curl down)
  40. each cerebral hemisphere receives sensory input from and directs motor output to the contralateral side of the body because ___________
    sensory neurons decussate in the spinal cord, leading to contralateral synapse
  41. __ pairs of cranial nerves; __ pairs of spinal nerves
    12; 31
  42. a _________ nerve is a combo of sensory and motor fibers.
  43. spinal nerve: sensory neurons form the ______ root
  44. spinal nerve: motor neurons form the ______ root
  45. _____________ do not involve the brain directly; stimulation of sensory receptors that evoke action potential from the spinal cord
    reflex arc
  46. by the end of embryonic development, the neural tube develops into...___________________
    the forebrain, midbrain, and hindbrain
  47. mixed nerve = ____ + ______ neurons
    sensory + motor