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- Specialist who works under physician supervision to:
- ......1. Develop, implement, and coordinate exercise programs
- .....2. Administer medical tests to promote physical fitness
BOOK SAYS: Physician who specializes in diagnosing and treating causes of paralysis and similar muscular disorders in which there is a loss of function.
DORLAND'S & JSK SAY: Physician who specializes in diagnosing and treating disorders of the nervous system. This often includes diagnosing and treating disorders that manifest with muscular signs & symptoms such as abnormal sensation or loss of function.
Physician who specializes in physical medicine and rehabilitation with the focus on restoring function.
Note: Rehabilitation is restoration, following disease, illnes, or injury, of the abiilty to function in a normal or near-normal manner.
Physician specializing in the diagnosis and treatment of arthritis and disorders such as osteoporosis, fibromyalgia, and tendonitis that are characterized by inflammation in the joints and connective tissues.
Sports medicine physician
Specializes in treating sport-related injuries of the bones, joints, and tendons.
The study of human factors that affect the design and operation of tools and the work environment
1. Inflammation of a fascia
2. Also spelled fascitis
- 1. Debilitating chronic condition characterized by:
- ......1. Fatigue
- ......2. Diffuse and/or specific muscle, joint, or bone pain
- ......3. A wide range of other symptoms
2. Now thought to be a neurosensory disorder characterized by abnormal pain processing by the CNS (central nervous system)
3. Occurs frequently with CFS, rheumatoid arthritis, and lupus.
4. Contrast with Chronic fatigue syndrome
Chronic fatigue syndrome
1. Disorder of unknown cause that affects many body systems.
2. Many CFS symptoms to similar FMS
3. Debilitating and complex disorder characterized by a profound fatigue of at least 2 months duration, that is not improved by bed rest, and my be made worse by physical or mental stimulation.
CFS patients ofter function at much lower level than they did before onset of the illnesson.
pain in a tendon
inflammation of the tendons caused by excessive or unusual use of the joint.
1. Band of fibrous tissue that holds structures together abnormally.
2. Can form in muscles, or internal organs, as a result of injury or surgery.
Weakness or wearing away of body tissues and structures.
Atrophy of a muscle can be caused by pathology or by disuse of the muscle over a long period of time.
1. Tenderness or pain in a muscle.
2. Also known as myodynia.
Herniation (protrusion) of muscle substance through a tear in the fascia surrounding it.
Note: A hernia is the prtrusoin of a part or structure through the tissues normally containing it.
Degeneration of muscle tissue
- Note: 1. Degeneration - Deterioration or breaking down
- ..........2. Deterioration - Process of becoming worse.
Abnormal softening of muscle tissue
Rupture or tearing of a muscle
1. Muscle disease characterized by simultaneous inflammation and weakening of voluntary muscles in many parts of the body.
2. Affected muscles are typically those closest to the trunk or torso.
3. Resulting weakness can be severe.
Loss of muscle mass, strength, and function that comes with aging.
2. Weight or resistance training program can significiantly improve muscle mass and slow, but not stop, this process.
1. State of balanced muscle tension
(contraction & relaxation) that makes normal posture, coordination, and movement possible
- 2. Examples of disorders of muscles tone include:
- .....a. Atonic
- .....b. Dystonia
- .....c. Hypertonia
- .....d. Hypotonia
- .....e. Myotonia - neuromuscular disorder
Means (in reference to muscles) pertaining to muscle tone.
1. BOOK: Means lacking normal muscle tone or strength.
2. Dorland's DICTIONARY: Pertaining to atony or atonia.
Condition of abnormal muscle tone that causes the impairment of voluntary muscle movement
Condition of excessive tone of the skeletal muscles.
Note: Opposite of hypotonia.
Condition in which there is diminished tone of the skeletal muscles.
Note: Opposite of hypertonia.
Neuromuscular disorder characterized by the slow relaxation of the muscles after a voluntary contraction.
Disorders of Voluntary Muscle Movement
- Disorders of voluntary muscle movement include:
- .....1. Ataxia
- .....2. Dystaxia
- .....3. Contracture
- .....4. Intermmittent Claudication
- .....5. Spasm
- .....6. Cramp
- .....7. Spasmodic torticollis
Inability to coordinate muscle activity during voluntary muscle movement.
There movements are often shaky and unsteady
Most frequently casued by abnormal activity in the cerebellum.
1. MILD form of ataxia.
2. Also called partial ataxia.
3. Ataxia is inability to coordinate voluntary muscle activity
Permanent tightening of fascia, muscles, tendons, ligaments, or skin that occurs when normally elastic connective tissues are replaced with nonelastic fibrous tissues.
Most common cause of contractures are scarring or lack of use due to immobilization or inactivity.
Pain in leg muscles that occurs during exercise and is relieved by rest.
This condition is due to poor circulation.
Associated with peripheral vascular disease.
Sudden, violent, involuntary contraction of one or more muscles.
Localized muscle spasm named for its cause, such as a heat cramp or writer's cramp.
Stiff neck due to spasmodic contraction of the neck muscles that pull the head toward the affected side.
Also known as wryneck.
Contraction, or shortening, of the muscles of the neck.
Note: Comes from tortus = twisted and collum = neck.
Disorders of Muscle Function
- Examples of disorders of muscle function include:
- .....a. Bradykinesia
- .....b. Dyskinesia
- .....c. Hyperkinesia
- .....d. Hypokinesia
Extreme slowness in movement
This condition is one of the symptoms of Parkinson's disease.
Distortion or impairment of voluntary movement, such as a tic or spasm.
Note: A tic is a spasmodic muscular contraction that often involves parts of the face.
Although these movements appear purposeful, they are not under voluntary control.
1. Abnormally increased muscle function or activity.
2. Sometimes called hyperactivity.
Note: Opposite of hypokinesia.
Abnormally decreased muscle function or activity.
Note: Opposite of hyperkinesia
Sudden, involuntary jerking of a muscle or group of muscles.
TIP: For -clonus think cyCLONE.
Jerking of limbs that can occur normally as a person is falling asleep.
Myoclonus of the diaphragm that causes characteristic hiccup sound with each spasm.
Note: Gravis comes from Latin word for grave or serious
- Chronic autoimmune disease:
- ......1. Affects the neuromuscular junction
- ......2. Produces serious weakness of voluntary muscles.
- 1. General term describing a group of more than 30 GENETIC DISEASES that are characterized by:
- .....a. Progressive weakness
- .....b. Degeneration of skeletal muscles that control movement
- .....c. Does NOT affect nervous system
2. No specific treatment to stop or reverse
any form of MD.
3. Properly referred to as muscular dystrophies
- 4. Three of the most common forms are:
- ......a. Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD)
- ..........Most common form of MD. Primarily affects boys with onset between 3 & 5 years. Progresses rapidly so most boys are unable to walk by age 12 and later need a respirator to breathe.
- ......b. Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD)
- ..........Very similar to, but less severe than, DMD
- ......c. Congential muscular dystrophy
- ...........Onset at birth; general muscle weakness, possible joint deformities; disease progresses slowly; lifespan shortened. Includes several disorders.
Repetitive stress disorders
1. Variety of muscular conditions
that result from repeated motions performed in the course of normal work,
, or recreation
such as sports.
2.Symptoms involve muscles, tendons, nerves, and joints.
3. Examples include:
.....a. Compartment syndrome
- .....b. Overuse injuries.....c. Overuse tendinitis .....d. Stress fractures
Involves compression of nerves and blood vessels due to swelling within the enclosed space created by the fascia
that separates groups of muscles.
- Syndrome can be caused by:
- .....a. Trauma
- .....b. Tight bandages or casts
- .....c. Repetitive activities such as running
1.MINOR tissue injuries
that have not been given time to heal.
- 2. Such injuries can be caused by:
- .....a. Spending hours at the computer keyboard
- .....b. Lengthy sports training sessions.
Inflammation of tendons caused by excessive or unusual use of a joint
Small crack or cracks in bone that development from excessive or repeated impact.
Rotator Cuff Injuries
- Examples of rotator cuff injuries include:
- .....a. Impingement syndrome
- .....b. Rotator cuff tendinitis
- .....c. Ruptured rotator cuff
1. Disorder of the rrotator cuff.
2. Occurs when inflamed and swollen tendons are caught in the narrow space between the bones within the shoulder joint.
3. A common sign of impingement syndrome is discomfort when raising your arm above your head.
Rotator cuff tendinitis
1. Inflammation of the tendons of the rotator cuff
2. Often named for the cause, such as tennis shoulder or pitcher's shoulder.
Ruptured rotator cuff
1. Overused, irritated, damaged tendon weakens and ruptures.
- 2. Develops when:
- .....a. Rotator cuff tendinitis is left untreated, or if
- .....b. Overuse continues
- 1. Narrow, bony passage under the carpal ligament
- 2. Located 1/4th of an inch below the inner surface of the wrist.
Carpal tunnel syndrome
- Symptoms occur when tendons passing through the carpal tunnel:
- .....a. Are chronically overused
- .....b. Become inflammed and swollen
Carpal tunnel release
1. Treatment used to relieve pressue on tendons and nerves in severe cases of carpal tunnel syndrome
- 2. Procedure involves:
- ......a. Surgical enlargement of the carpal tunnel OR
- ......b. Cutting of the carpal ligamen
1. Harmless fluid-filled swelling
that occurs most commonly on the outer surface of the wrist
Note: Do NOT confuse
- 2. Condition:
- .....a. Caused by repeated minor injuries
- .....b. Usually painless
- .....c. Does not require treatment
this with nerve ganglions
1. Inflammation of the tissues surrounding the elbow
- 2. There are two main types:
- .....a. Lateral epicondylitis: Pain on outer side of forearm
- .....b. Medial epicondylitis: Pain on inner side of forearm
1. Calcium deposit in the plantar fascia near its attachment to the calcaneus (heel) bone
2. Can be one cause of plantar fascitis
1. Inflammation of the plantar fascia on the sole of the foot.
2. Condition causes foot or heel pain when walking or running.
Injury to a joint, such as ankle, knee, or wrist that usually involves a stretched or torn ligament.
- 1. Injury to the body of a muscle or to the attachment of a tendon.
- 2. Usually associated with overuse injuries
- 3. Uuually involve a stretched or torn muscle or tendon attachment
1. Painful condition caused by muscle tearing away from the tibia (shin bone)
2. Can develop in the anterolateral (front & side) muscles or posteromedial (back & middle) muscles of the lower leg.
3. This type of injury is usually caused by repeated stress to the lower leg, such as running on hard surfaces.
1. Strain or tear on any of the three hamstring
2. Hamstring muscles straighten the hip and bend the knee.
2. When these muscles contract too quickly, an injury can occur.
3. Injury is characterized by sudden & severe pain in the back of the thigh.
Painful inflammation of the Achilles tendon caused by excessive stess being placed on that tendon.
1. In surrounded and protected by the bony vertebrae.
2. Protection essential.
3. Spinal cord is soft, with the consistency of toothpaste.
Spinal cord injury
1. The type of paralysis caused by a spinal cord injury
is determined by the level of the vertebra closest to the injury.
2. The higher on the spinal cord, the greater the area of the body that may be affected.
- 3. Injuries occurs when a vertebra is:
- .....a. Broken and a piece of the broken bone presses into the spinal cord.
- .....b. Pushed or pulled out of alignment
- 4. When the spinal cord is injured, the:
- .....a. Ability of the brain to communicate with the body below the level of the injury may be reduced or completely lost.
- .....b. Affected parts of the body will not function normally
- 5. Two general degrees of injury:
- .....a. Incomplete injury:
- ..........(1) Person has some function below the level of the injury
- ..........(2) Remaining function is not normal
- .....b. Complete injury:
- ..........(1) Below level of injury there's complete loss of:
- ...............(a.) Sensation
- ...............(b.) Muscle control
- ..........(2) Does not mean there is no hope of any improvement
1. Loss of sensation and voluntary muscle movements in a muscle through disease or injury to its nerve supply.
2. Damage can be either temporary or permanent.
Weakness or slight muscular paralysis
Slight paralysis or weakness affecting one side of the body
Total paralysis affecting only one side of the body.
2. This form of paralysis is usually assiciated with a stroke or brain damage.
3. Damage to one side of the brain causes paralysis on the opposite side of the body.
4. A person affected with hemiplegia is known as a hemiplegic.
Note: Contrast this with hemiparesis.
- 1. Paralysis of:
- .....a. Both legs
- .....b. The lower part of the body
2. A person affected with paraplegia is known as a paraplegic.
1. Paralysis of all four extremities
1. Paralysis of the cardia muscle
2. Also known as cadiac arrest.
- 3. Can be caused by:
- .....a. Direct blow
- .....b. Trauma
- .....c. Induced - Temporary stopping of heart activity can be induced by using drugs.