Bio 1 test 1

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  1. 4 atoms of life
    carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen
  2. 3 uses for radioactive isotopes
    1. Treatment of thyroid cancer (radioactive iodide)

    2. Auto-radiography--self radioactive picture

    3. radio-dating. C14's half-life is 5000 years.
  3. Octet rule
    atoms like to fill their valance shells (except noble/inert gasses)
  4. Ionic bond
    one atom gives another an electron, then the ions are attracted to their charges
  5. electronegativity
    how bad atoms want to fill their valance. O and N want it more that C and H
  6. Covalent polar
    sharing electrons unevenly. H2O--dipole
  7. nonpolar covalent
    sharing electrons evenly. CH4
  8. Law of Solubility
    Like dissolves like
  9. Hydrogen bonds
    dipole-dipole attraction of separate molecules.
  10. Properties of Water that make it support life (8)
    • 1. hydrogen bonds make high surface tension
    • 2. water adheres and coheres
    • 3. high heat of vaporization (liquid -> gas)
    • 4. high specific heat
    • 5. cools by evaporation
    • 6. solvent: small and polar so can break up and surround
    • 7. Most dense while still in liquid form (4 degrees C)
    • 8. can ionize (a small part)
  11. pH formula
    • - log (H+)
    • - log (10-5) = pH 5
  12. pH6 - pH4
    100x more acidic (10 x 10)
  13. Valance
    # of electrons needed to fulfill the octet rule
  14. 4 ways that carbon skeletons can vary (creating isomers)
    • 1. Length (# carbons)
    • 2. Branching (butane, 2-methylpropane=isobutane)
    • 3. double bond position (1-butene, 2-butene)
    • 4. presence of rings (Benzene, cyclohexane=aromatic)
  15. isomer
    different chemical with same molecular formula
  16. 3 types of isomers
    structural, cis-trans, enantiomers
  17. cis
    large groups on same side of double bond (top or bottom)
  18. trans
    large groups on opposite sides of double bond (top and bottom)
  19. enantiomers
    mirror images. Can only exist with 4 different functional groups. Have L (left) and D (right) isomers with different properties (medical). Discovered by Louis Pasteur
  20. alcohols
    -OH, hydroxyl group.
  21. Carbonyl
    =C=O Ketones (=C=O) inside or Aldehydes (-CHO) at end
  22. Aldehyde
    -CHO, terminating carbonyl group
  23. ketone
    =C=O Carbonyl group inside molecule
  24. Carboxyl
    organic acid. -COOH (Amine + Carboxyl + R group = amino acid)
  25. Amino
    -N-H2 Amine (Amine + Carboxyl + R group = amino acid)
  26. Sulfhydryl
    -SH, -HS, Thiol
  27. Thiol
    -SH, -HS, Sulfhydryl
  28. Phosphate
  29. Methyl
    -CH3 Methylated Compound
  30. types of macromolecules
    carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids
  31. Starch
  32. cellulose
    type of starch. Polysaccharide. Undigestible by humans (mostly plants)
  33. Lipid
    defined by being insoluble in water (nonpolar)
  34. Triacyl glycerol
    trigliceride, lipid
  35. phospholipids
    lipid. Membrane component. Partially dissolves in water--immediatly forms phospholipid by-layer. Contains PO4 group (polar, hydrophilic), glycerol and fatty acid tail (nonpolar, hydrophobic). If tail has 1 or more double bonds, it is unsaturated. Otherwise it is saturated.
  36. dehydration synthesis
    removing a water molecule to connect two monomers into a polymer
  37. Hydrolysis
    inserting a water molecule to break apart a polymer
  38. simple sugars
    Carbohydrates [CH2O]n
  39. Trioses
    simple sugar, carbohydrate. C3H6O3
  40. Pentoses
    Simple sugar, carbohydrate. C5H10O5.
  41. hexoses
    Glucose. Simple sugar. Carbohydrate. C6H12O6
  42. glucose
    Simple sugar. Hexose. Carbohydrate. C6H12O6
  43. Amylose
    simple sugar. Long unbound chain of glucose structures
  44. Glycogen
    animal sugar with lots of ends so it can break down faster.
  45. Saturated fats
    animal fats containing no double bonds, so they freeze easily and are solid at room temperature
  46. unsaturated fats
    plant fats containing at least one double bond. Freezing point is high and they are liquid at room temperature
  47. cholesterol
    nonpolar lipid
  48. types of proteins
    • storage (milk (casein), egg whites (albumin), seeds)
    • hormonal (insulin, vasopressin, oxytocin)
    • contractile and motor proteins (actin, myosin)
    • defensive (antibodies)
    • transport (hemoglobin)
    • receptor (chemoreceptors--smell)
    • structural (keratin--hair, nails etc.)
  49. What are amino acids held together by?
    peptide bonds (polypeptide is protein)
  50. Primary structure of Amino Acids
    sequence of amino acids
  51. secondary structure of amino acids
    hydrogen bonding in amino acids (alpha helix and beta pleated sheets)
  52. tertiary structure in amino acids
    R-group interactions (hydrogen bonds, hydrophobic interactions, ionic bonds, disulfide bridges)
  53. quaternary structure of amino acids
    multiple polypeptides together
  54. Denaturing
    changing the function and physical properties of proteins. Cooking egg whites or unwinding overlap (hair).
  55. Nucleotide
    • 1. sugar pentose (DNA and RNA use ribose and deoxyribose)
    • 2. phosphate group
    • 3. Nitrogenous base
  56. DNA structure
    Sugar and Phosphate form backbone, Nitroginous base forms ladder rungs. Hydrogen bonds create double helix.
  57. Robert Hooke
    saw first "prison cells" in cork
  58. van Leuwenhoek
    saw first microorganisms in pond water and semen
  59. Schleiden and Schwann
    cell theory: all life is composed of cells. Cells are the basic unit of life. All cells come from pre-existing cells..
  60. Resolution
    ability to distinguish 2 dots as 2 dots
  61. Light microscope (LM)
    regular microscope, where light passes through the subject.
  62. electron microscope
    shoots electrons through object. Must be placed in a vacuum. Object must be dead.
  63. Organelles
    internal cellular structures
  64. vital dyes
    dyes that allow cells to keep living
  65. microtome
    deli-slicer for cells
  66. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM)
    coat objects with gold and then excite electrons to get a 3D image on a screen
  67. transmission electron microscope (TEM)
    see internal structures by coating with heavy metals like lead
  68. phase-contrast
    density is amplified to enhance contrast
  69. differential-interference contrast
    exaggerate density to make object look 3D
  70. fluorescence
    inject with fluorescence. Emits visible light
  71. confocal
    takes light from specific planes--sharper images
  72. Fractionation and Centrifugation
    put cells in the blender, then centrifuge them. Weight makes them settle out separately.
  73. prokaryotes
    Bacterial cells. Nucleoid--no membrane to contain DNA. Have ribosomes, plasma membrane, cell wall (proteoglycan), Capsule (polysaccharide slime), Flagella, Fibriae (pilis--sexual reproduction and anchorage).
  74. plasma membrane
    half phospholipids, half proteins (transport proteins), carbohydrate side chain (markers to identify cells--blood type).
  75. Nucleus
    largest organelle in animal cells. Has all DNA. Has double membrane and nuclear pores.
  76. Nucleolus
    ribosomes are made. DNA is contained here.
  77. Free ribosomes
    out in cytoplasm. Make proteins that effect cell
  78. Bound ribosomes
    create proteins that are secreted from cell
  79. rough endoplasmic reticulum
    studded with ribosomes, makes membrane proteins. Stores them in lumen of ER. Then sends to golgi.
  80. smooth endoplasmic reticulum
    detoxification, stores calcium, makes lipids
  81. Golgi apparatus
    "post office". Takes transport vesicles from rough Er in on Cis side, reads them, labels them and sends them out the trans side to the membrane.
  82. lysosome
    "splitting bodies". Little stomachs full of digestive enzymes performing phagocytosis and autophagy.
  83. peroxisome
    "test tubes". Delicate enzymes are put in peroxisomes to work more efficiently
  84. Mitochondria
    2nd largest organelle. Double membrane (inner folded membrane called cristae), own DNA and ribosomes. Cellular respiration. Glucose+oxygen=carbon dioxide, water and ATP.
  85. endosymbiosis
    when a tiny organism lives within a larger one long enough that they become a part of each other--mitochondria and chloroplasts
  86. cytoskeleton
    microfilaments, microtubules, intermediate filaments
  87. microtubules
    hollow tube. alpha and beta proteins. Major components of cilia and flagella. Also serves as spindle apparatus in mitosis. Centrisomes.
  88. microfilaments
    actin filaments. Braided rope. Muscle contraction, cytoplasmic streaming (organisms moving on actin tracks), clevage of cell. Ameboid movement.
  89. Intermediate filaments
    Tough proteins that give cell structure. different from cell to cell.
  90. centrisomes
    consists of 2 centrioles. made of tubulin. spindle apparatus in mitosis
  91. flagella
    mostly sperm cells in animal, but in many plants (algae and fungi). involved in locomotion. Also cilia. movement. 9+2 arrangement.
  92. Microvilli
    inside of intestine. Convoluted surface of some cells. Plasma membrane's finger-like projections. Underneath each one is microfilament.
  93. Plant Cell vs Animal Cell
    • Plant: chloroplasts, central vacuole, cell wall and plasmodema
    • Animal: lysosomes, centrisomes
    • Both: Nucleus, smooth Er, Rough Er, Ribosomes, Cytoskeleton, plasma membrane, mitochondria, golgi, peroxisome, flagella
  94. Extracellular matrix
    outside cell wall, loose mesh of proteins. Communication between inside and outside.
  95. Desmosomes (animal)
    the velcro that bonds cells and tissues.
  96. gap-junction (animal)
    little tubes connecting cells, letting ions and tiny molecules through.
  97. tight junctions (animal)
    the rubberband that prevents things from squeezing between the cells. Found in GI tract.
  98. chloroplasts
    site of photosynthesis (opposite of cellular respiration). Double membranes. Inner membrane is green. Where chlorophyl occurs. Thylakoid membrane (green) stroma is outside. Has DNA and ribosomes.
  99. central vacuole
    big sac of water with ions and chemicals inside. Filler for plant cell.
  100. Photosynthesis formula
    6CO2 + 6H2O--> C6H12O6 + 6O2
  101. Cellular respiration formula
    C6H12O6 + 6O2--> 6CO2 + 6H2O + 36ATP
  102. Cell wall
    plants have 2--elastic primary while growing, secondary more substancial. Made of cellulose
  103. Plasmodema (plant cell)
    like gap junctions in animal cells. Passages that can open, close and dilate to allow proteins and mRNA to enter. Allow lots of communication, so plants act like 1 big super-cell.
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Bio 1 test 1
2012-02-16 05:43:03

Bio 1 test 1
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