1. Treatment of thyroid cancer (radioactive iodide)
2. Auto-radiography--self radioactive picture
3. radio-dating. C14's half-life is 5000 years.
atoms like to fill their valance shells (except noble/inert gasses)
one atom gives another an electron, then the ions are attracted to their charges
how bad atoms want to fill their valance. O and N want it more that C and H
sharing electrons unevenly. H2O--dipole
sharing electrons evenly. CH4
when polar water surrounds an ion, like Cl- (anion) or Na+(cation)
Law of Solubility
Like dissolves like
dipole-dipole attraction of separate molecules.
Properties of Water that make it support life (8)
1. hydrogen bonds make high surface tension
2. water adheres and coheres
3. high heat of vaporization (liquid -> gas)
4. high specific heat
5. cools by evaporation
6. solvent: small and polar so can break up and surround
7. Most dense while still in liquid form (4 degrees C)
8. can ionize (a small part)
- log (H+)
- log (10-5) = pH 5
pH6 - pH4
100x more acidic (10 x 10)
# of electrons needed to fulfill the octet rule
4 ways that carbon skeletons can vary (creating isomers)
1. Length (# carbons)
2. Branching (butane, 2-methylpropane=isobutane)
3. double bond position (1-butene, 2-butene)
4. presence of rings (Benzene, cyclohexane=aromatic)
different chemical with same molecular formula
3 types of isomers
structural, cis-trans, enantiomers
large groups on same side of double bond (top or bottom)
large groups on opposite sides of double bond (top and bottom)
mirror images. Can only exist with 4 different functional groups. Have L (left) and D (right) isomers with different properties (medical). Discovered by Louis Pasteur
-OH, hydroxyl group.
1 carbonyl group and multiple OH groups. Either an aldose or a ketose
=C=O Ketones (=C=O) inside or Aldehydes (-CHO) at end.
-CHO, terminating carbonyl group
=C=O Carbonyl group inside molecule
organic acid. -COOH (Amine + Carboxyl + R group = amino acid)
-N-H2 Amine (Amine + Carboxyl + R group = amino acid)
-SH, -HS, Thiol
-SH, -HS, Sulfhydryl
-CH3 Methylated Compound
types of macromolecules
carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids
polysaccharide. Plant storage. Made of alpha glucose
type of starch. Made of beta glucose. Plant polysaccharide. Undigestible by animals. Plant cell wall.
defined by being insoluble in water (nonpolar). Not polymers
long carbon skeleton with carboxyl group at one end. Nonpolar. Part of many molecules (tails).
trigliceride, lipid. 3 fatty acid tails attached to 1 glycerol
man made fats with trans double bonds (hydrogenating)
lipid. Membrane component. Immediatly forms phospholipid by-layer in water. Contains PO4 group (polar, hydrophilic), glycerol and 2 fatty acid tails (nonpolar, hydrophobic). If tail has 1 or more double bonds, it is unsaturated. Otherwise it is saturated.
removing a water molecule to connect two monomers into a polymer
inserting a water molecule to break apart a polymer
simple sugar, carbohydrate. C3H6O3
Simple sugar, carbohydrate. C5H10O5.
Glucose. Simple sugar. Carbohydrate. C6H12O6
polysaccharide of insects and fungi. Dissolving sutures
Monosaccharide. Hexose. Carbohydrate. C6H12O6. Aldose. Forms ring.
simplest form of starch (unbranched). Long unbound chain of glucose structures
starch in a Y shape (like amylose or glycogen)
animal polysaccharide with lots of ends so it can break down faster.
animal fats containing no double bonds, so they freeze easily and are solid at room temperature
plant fats containing at least one double bond. Freezing point is high and they are liquid at room temperature
nonpolar lipid steroid with 4 fused rings. All other steroids (sex hormones) synthesized from it.
multiple polypeptides held together by hydrogen bonds
changing the function and physical properties of proteins. Cooking egg whites or unwinding overlap (hair).
Monomer of nucleic acid polymer (polynucleotide)
1. sugar pentose (DNA and RNA use ribose and deoxyribose. Deoxy has 1 less O)
2. phosphate group
3. Nitrogenous base
Have a 5 end and a 3 end, and run antiparallel(highway)
pyramidine (one fused cyclohexane)
purine (two fused cyclohexanes)
Polynucleotide. Sugar and Phosphate form backbone, Nitroginous base forms ladder rungs. Hydrogen bonds create double helix.
saw first "prison cells" in cork
saw first microorganisms in pond water and semen
Schleiden and Schwann
cell theory: all life is composed of cells. Cells are the basic unit of life. All cells come from pre-existing cells..
ability to distinguish 2 dots as 2 dots
Light microscope (LM)
regular microscope, where light passes through the subject.
shoots electrons through object. Must be placed in a vacuum. Object must be dead. Can see organelles
internal cellular structures
dyes that allow cells to keep living
deli-slicer for cells
Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM)
coat objects with gold and then excite electrons to get a 3D image on a screen. GOod for topography
transmission electron microscope (TEM)
see internal structures by coating with heavy metals like lead. Good for internal structures
density is amplified to enhance contrast
exaggerate density to make object look 3D
inject with fluorescence. Emits visible light
takes light from specific planes--sharper images
Fractionation and Centrifugation
put cells in the blender, then centrifuge them. Weight makes them settle out separately.
Bacterial cells. Nucleoid--no membrane to contain DNA. Have ribosomes, plasma membrane, cell wall (proteoglycan), Capsule (polysaccharide slime), Flagella, Fibriae (pilis--sexual reproduction and anchorage).
half phospholipids, half proteins (transport proteins), carbohydrate side chain (markers to identify cells--blood type).
largest organelle in animal cells. Has all DNA. Has double membrane and nuclear pores.
ribosomes are made. DNA is contained here. So is chromatin (DNA and protein)
out in cytoplasm. Make proteins that work in cytosol
create proteins that are secreted from cell, work in membrane or lysosomes
nucleus, ER, golgi apparatus, plasma membrane, lysosomes, vacuoles/vesicles. Synthesizes proteins, transport of proteins into membranes or organelles or out of cell, metabolism and movement of lipids and detox of poisons
rough endoplasmic reticulum
studded with ribosomes, makes membrane proteins. Stores them in lumen of ER (cisternae). Membrane is continous with nuclear envelope. Makes insulin, glycoproteins (proteins with carbs), membrane factory. Grows in place (adds to own membrane)
"post office". Takes transport vesicles from rough Er in on Cis side, reads them, labels them and sends them out the trans side to the membrane. Cisternae with enzymes. Modifies glycoproteins, membrane phospholipids and makes polysaccharides
"splitting bodies". Little stomachs full of digestive enzymes performing phagocytosis and autophagy. Some are made by rough Er and golgi
"test tubes". Delicate enzymes are put in peroxisomes to work more efficiently
2nd largest organelle. Double membrane (inner folded membrane called cristae), own DNA and ribosomes. Cellular respiration. Glucose+oxygen=carbon dioxide, water and ATP.
when a tiny organism lives within a larger one long enough that they become a part of each other--mitochondria and chloroplasts
hollow tube. alpha and beta proteins. Major components of cilia and flagella. Also serves as spindle apparatus in mitosis. Centrisome hub. Tracks in cell (golgi to plasma), growth of plant cell wall.
actin filaments. Braided rope. Muscle contraction, cytoplasmic streaming (organisms moving on actin tracks), clevage of cell. Ameboid movement. Bear tension, cell shape (cortex), so it's a gel not a liquid. Microvilli. Cytoplasmic streaming.
Tough proteins that give cell structure. different from cell to cell. Bear tension. More permanent than others. Hold cell shape, hold nucleus in place. Lamina.
consists of 2 centrioles. made of tubulin. spindle apparatus in mitosis
mostly sperm cells in animal, but in many plants (algae and fungi). involved in locomotion. Also cilia. movement. 9+2 arrangement.
motor. Bends flagella/cilia and makes it "walk" on microtubules.
inside of intestine. Convoluted surface of some cells. Plasma membrane's finger-like projections. Underneath each one is microfilament.
Plant Cell vs Animal Cell
Plant: chloroplasts, central vacuole, cell wall and plasmodema
Animal: lysosomes, centrisomes
Both: Nucleus, smooth Er, Rough Er, Ribosomes, Cytoskeleton, plasma membrane, mitochondria, golgi, peroxisome, flagella
proteins that glue the cell walls together.
outside cell wall, loose mesh of proteins. Communication between inside and outside. In animal, collagen, proteoglycan.
the velcro that bonds cells and tissues.
little tubes connecting cells, letting ions and tiny molecules through.
tight junctions (animal)
the rubberband that prevents things from squeezing between the cells. Found in GI tract.
site of photosynthesis (opposite of cellular respiration). Double membranes. Inner membrane is green. Where chlorophyl (pigment) occurs. Thylakoid stacks (green), stroma (fluid) is outside. Has DNA and ribosomes. Mobile--move on cytoskeleton. Plastid.
big sac of water with ions and chemicals inside. Filler for plant cell.
6CO2 + 6H2O--> C6H12O6 + 6O2
Cellular respiration formula
C6H12O6 + 6O2--> 6CO2 + 6H2O + 36ATP
plants have 2--elastic primary while growing, secondary more substancial. Made of cellulose. Fights gravity, stops osmosis. Outside of plasma membrane. Microfibrils.
Plasmodema (plant cell)
like gap junctions in animal cells. Passages that can open, close and dilate to allow proteins and mRNA to enter. Allow lots of communication, so plants act like 1 big super-cell.
recorded observations that are descriptions, not numbers
recorded observations of numbers and measurements
three steps of the scientific method
logic in which generalizations are based on observations
logic in which specific results are predicted from a general premise (if-then)
3 elements of a good experiment
large, representative samples of all sides
C attached to 4 different atoms/molecules
covalent bonds between monosaccharides by dehydration synthesis, turning them into disaccharides