nutrition 12 ch 3

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Ghoelix
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nutrition 12 ch 3
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2012-03-04 03:27:34
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nutrition 12 ch 3
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  1. What is the smallest unit of life?
    Cell.
  2. Amylase
    -Mouth enzyme
    Breaks down starch into shorter chains of glucose.
  3. Rennin
    -Stomach enzyme
    Denatures milk protein, making it into casein. Usually only present in children.
  4. Pepsin
    -Stomach enzyme
    Breaks proteins into polypeptides ( smaller bits of protein ) and amino acids.

    Pepsin works best in an acidic environment ( like the stomach ), the acidic environment of the stomach stops salivary amylase from working so digestion of starch stops in the stomach and digestion of protein begins.
  5. Trypsin
    -Pancreatic enzyme
    Breaks proteins and polypeptides into shorter polypeptides.
  6. Chymotrypsin
    -Pancreatic enzyme
    Breaks proteins and polypeptides into shorter polypeptides.
  7. Carboxypeptidase
    -Pancreatic enzyme
    Breaks polypeptides down into amino acids.
  8. Lipase
    -Pancreatic enzyme
    Breaks triglycerides into monoglycerides, fatty acids, and glycerol.
  9. Pancreatic amylase
    -Pancreatic enzyme
    Breaks starch down into shorter glucose chains and maltose.
  10. Enzymes
    -Small intestine
    --Caroxypeptidase
    --aminopeptidase
    --dipetidase
    Breaks polypeptides and dipeptides into amino acids.
  11. Lipase
    -Small intestine enzyme
    Breaks monoglycerides into fatty acids and glycerol.
  12. Sucrase
    -Small intestine enzyme
    Breaks sucrose down into glucose and fructose.
  13. Lactase
    -Small intestine enzyme
    Breakds lactose down into glucose and galactose.
  14. Dextrinase
    -Small intestine enzyme
    Breaks down short chains of glucose into individual glucose molecules.
  15. Gastrin
    -Stomach hormone
    Stimulates secretion of HCl and pepsinogen by gastric glands in the stomach.

    Increases gastric motility and emptying.
  16. Hormone
    -Stomach and duodenal mucosa
    --Somatostatin
    • Inhibits:
    • stomach secretion,
    • stomach motility,
    • stomach emptying,
    • pancreatic secretion,
    • absorbtion in small intestine,
    • gallbladder contraction,
    • and bile release.
  17. What is an antigen?
    A foreign substance ( usually a protein ) that stimulates an immune response when introduced to the body.
  18. What is a lacteal?
    A lymph and blood vessel in a villus.
  19. What is segmentation in the small intestine?
    Rythmic local contractions in the small intestine which mixes chyme and increases absorbtion.
  20. What does pancreas secrete?
    Pancreatic juice which contains: bicarbonate ions and digestive enzymes.

    The bicarbonate ions neutrealize the acid in chyme and the enzymes ( pancreatic amylase ) breaks down starch into sugars.

    Trypsin and chymotrypsin break down protein into smaller bits of protein and down into amino acids.

    Lipases break triglycerides into fatty acids.
  21. What does gall bladder secrete?
    The gall bladder secretes bile into the small intestine to emulsify fat, or, to break it down.
  22. What does the mucosal lining of the duodenum secrete?
    It secretes two hormones:

    Secretin which signals the pancreas to secrete pancreatic juice ( shich contains bicarbonate ions ) and also signals the liver to secrete bile into the gall blader.

    Cholecystokinin (CCK) signals teh pancreas to secrete digestive enzymes and causes the gallbladder to contract and release bile into the duodenum.
  23. What are Veins?
    Blood vessels that transport blood toward the heart.
  24. What are arteries?
    Blood vessels that transport blood away from the heart.
  25. What is the hepatic Portal Vein?
    A large vein that transports blood directly to the liver where it is processed before being sent to the rest of the body.
  26. What is metabolic pathway?
    Series of biochemical reactions needed to go from a raw material to the final product.
  27. What are anabolic pathways?
    Metabolic pathways that use energy from ATP to build body compounds.
  28. What is cellular respiration?
    The reactions that break down glucose, fatty acids, amino acids in the presence of oxygen to produce CO2, H2O, and ATP.
  29. How does cellular respiration work?
    Carbohydrate, fat, and protein are broken down into glucose, fatty acids, and amino acids.

    Glucose, fatty acids, and amino acids, along with O2 form Acetyl-CoA.

    Acetyl-CoA is broken down in the mitochondria of a cell via the citric acid cycle to produce CO2 and some electrons.

    Electrons are moved to the electron transport chain which allows for the creation of ATP.

    ATP is then broken down into ADP + P + energy.
  30. What do kidneys mostly excrete?
    Water, metabolic waste products, and minerals.

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